, Encyclia, Encyclia pachyantha, Encyclia paraensis, Amazon, Brazil, Pará.

A new Encyclia (section Encyclia), from Amazonian Brazilian Region, is described.
This new species of Encyclia grows in the surroundings of Belém City, state of Pará, it has been already known since some time by cultivators in Belém.
Foto/Photo: V.P.Castro Neto
Encyclia pachyantha
First, it was considered as Encyclia pachyantha (Lindl.) Hoehne because the identification asked for the first author has been done from a photography, without analyzing neither the flowers nor the plant.
Encyclia pachyantha is a plant which was described as coming from Guyana and is also found in Brazil, in the state of Amapá.
However this new Encyclia is smaller than Encyclia pachyantha: at about a quarter of the plant size and at two thirds of flower size; the scent is particular, the floral characteristics are different and an homogenous population could be observed: Everything brings to conclude that this is a new species.

Foto/Photo: V.P.Castro Neto
Encyclia paraensis V. P. Castro & A. Cardoso, Richardiana, III(2) - 69/72, April 2003.


Encyclia pachyantha (Lindl) Hoehne similis, sed: semper floris 1/3 minoris, sepalo dorsali obovato-lanceolato; sepalis laterabilus leviter falcatis; petalis ovobatis, marginis laevis; labello trilobato, lobo mediano suborbiculato, disco cum callis bilamelalis albis, lobis lateralibus ligulatis et linearis, in Encyclia pachyantha arcuatis sunt; columna biauriculata.

Brazil - Pará, Campina do Igapó da Palha, Municipal district of Vigia (PA). prairie of white sand of Guajará, Municipal District of de Araçá (PA) 6 km from Balm city, near to Guamá river, at 20-50m altitude; the plant has been given by André Cardoso (Cardoso sn) and bloomed in cultivation in 2002, April 10 (Holotype: MG).

Herb epiphytic, caespitose, can reaching 25 cm height. Roots white, glabrous. Pseudobulb ovoid, at about 35 x 25 mm, more often bifoliate at the apex, clothed by 2-3 parchment-like sheaths . Leaf oblanceolate, coriaceous, smooth, with undulated margins, with a very well formed central veined, 14 x 2,3 cm. Inflorescence emerging from the pseudobulb apex, erect, 17 cm long, up to 5 flowers. Peduncle at about half of the inflorescence. Triangular floral bracts
. Flower medium size, green petals and sepals with longitudinal purple blotches since the half or 2/3 apical, with smooth greenish margins. Dorsal sepal, oblanceolate to lanceolate, acute concave apex, 1,9 cm long and 0,7 cm wide. Lateral sepals with the same form as the dorsal sepal, asymmetric, acute apex, 1,9 cm long for 0,7 cm wide. Acute, oboval petals, with narrow base, 1,9 cm long to 1,0 cm wide. Trilobed lip; lateral lobes are flexed towards the top to enclosing the column and opening forward to show the pollinia capsule; the medium lobe is oboval, white with parallel purple veins at the base, 1,25 cm long and 1,0 cm wide; Ligulate lateral lobes, oblique regarding to the lip axis when it is flattened, round at the apex, green with purple veins, 1 cm long and 0,35 cm wide; isthmus between the lateral lobes and short medium lobe; fleshy, white disc divided in 3 carinae which are throwing toward the medium lobe; the lip is 2,0 cm long and 2,0 cm wide when flattened. Triangular, greenish, slight sigmoid column 1,3 cm long. Anther white, 4 mm long; Pollinia 2, yellow, 1,5 mm long.
(see plate)

Distribution and habitat:
State of Pará, in the open sandy soil forests, in small trees, next to rivers, in low altitude. Humidity water almost all year round.

The name referred to the state of Pará.

  Mapa: Sergio Araujo

When this species is examined, immediately we think about the Encyclia pachyantha however when it is detailed analyzed, we conclude that it is a matter of a good species. Regarding to Encyclia remotiflora (C. Schweing.) Carnevali & Ramirez, the differences equally clear: this last species has just one leaf, longer inflorescence and the flowers are more separated one from the others.
Foto/Photo: V.P.Castro Neto Encyclia paraensis

We can notice that the plant size is just a quarter of Encyclia pachyantha size and the size of the flowers is, at about, 2/3, the petals and sepals are longer, the petals are orbicular and the margins are smooth, while the flowers of Encyclia pachyantha have the petals with undulated margins and acute edge. The lip of the new species presents narrower lateral lobes with round apex while in Encyclia pachyantha, they are wider with truncate apex. The wings of the column are wider and projected towards the top while in Encyclia pachyantha, they are a little more down projected; besides, the anther of Encyclia pachyantha has a square apex while in Encyclia pachyantha, it is bifurcated.

Foto/Photo: V.P.Castro Neto Encyclia pachyantha

Caravel, G., R. Avian& R. Gestapo, l994. Orchidaceae Dunstervillorum VIII: New Encyclia species and combinations from Venezuela Guyana, Lindleyana 9(1): 59-70.

Carnevali, G. & R. Ivon, l988. Revision del Genero Encyclia para Venezuela, Sol. Com. Orquid. Soc. Ven. Cienc. Nat. 23:13-87 (l988).

Castro Neto, V. P. & M. Campacci, 2000. Icones Orchidacearum Brasilienses I.

  Photographies: V. P. Castro Neto
Map: Sergio Araujo

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