With 56 hectares, corresponding to 1/3 of the whole area of the Ilha Grande (Big Island), the State Park of Ilha Grande was created in l971, aiming the preservation of the natural resources and also to stimulate the tourism.
The University of the state of Rio de Janeiro- UERJ has been developing a great project in order to be forgathered with the local community and wake this community up to be conscious about the valorization of citizenship, the preservation of the environment and the importance of a sustainable
development. For this, UERJ established the Center of Environmental Studies and Sustainable
Development – CEADS which gathers different environmental projects in many areas of the knowledge: Anthropology, Botany, Ecology, Environmental Education, Health Education, Fishing Engineering, Pharmacology, Geo-sciences, Nutrition, Oceanography, Sociology, Zoology.
And, it is in Botany that Herbário Bradeanum (Bradeanum Herbarium) takes part of this important project doing researches about Vila Dois Rios Florule.

  The project
(Abstract based on interviews, rapport and folders supplied by Bradeanum Herbarium).

Although the vegetation of the Serra do Mar (Mar mountains) which surrounds the harbour of Ilha Grande has high diversity and high number of endemic and/or threatened species and in spite of being considered as one of the Brazilian center of the diversity of plants recognized by WWF – World Wide Found For Nature and IUCN – The World Conservation Union, the importance of this fact is not translated by the representation of those species in our herbariums.
  Vista da região The project of surveying Vila Dois Rios Florule brings a great contribution to the study of the local flora, filling this gap as it aims the inventory of the remainder flora of slope Atlantic forest in the State Park of Ilha Grande, the amplification of the knowledge and the conservation of the floristic composition as well as the identification of endemic species and/or threatened by extinction. Thus, it goes on with the studies about the Orchidaceae family which were been accomplished by Bradeanum
  Herbarium since almost 50 years, besides amplifying the collection of Rio de Janeiro flora, of Bradeanum Herbarium and UERJ Herbarium.
To get those aims, a complete knowledge of the flora by collecting plants and taxonomical studies about the different botanical families which composed the Park became necessary.
Ilha Grande is the biggest island of the state of Rio de Janeiro with, at about, 190km² and is located in Angra dos Reis municipal district. With its vast Atlantic Forest vegetation, it is considered as an ecological sanctuary. The climate of the region is hot and humid, without dry season and with an annual medium temperature at 22,5ºC, a maximum at about 25,7º, in February and a minimal at 19,6º, in July.
The relief is uneven where Papagaio Peak, at 959m altitude and Serra do Retiro, 1031m are outstanding.
It was, primitively, entirely covered by the tropical pluvial forest (Atlantic Forest) since the sea level until the highest points.
Due to the different cycles by which the region went through since the colonial period (coffee, sugar cane and some others), the vegetation of the island which faces the continent is in state of degradation.
The highest points have been more preserved because they are more inaccessible and from those remainders, the vegetation could recovered itself. The woods placed in the south versant and the geographical center are better preserved. Even though, the island represents, nowadays, one of the few vast areas of dense ombrophilous forest (dense tropical rain forest) in the State of Rio de Janeiro in different phases of conservation. That is in this area, in the confluence of those regions that the Center of Environmental Studies and Sustainable Development –CEADS-UERJ is placed and that is where the Bradeanum Herbarium, in association with the Animal and Vegetal Biology Department, develops the Project of Vila Dois Rios Florule.

Embrapa-Monitored by satellite

Inside the area of State Park, in the southeast face of the sea side, at the mouth of two rivers (Barra Grande and Barra Pequena), Vila Dois Rios project is located. This precisely location is the reason of its name which means "Two Rivers Village".
  Nowadays the new construction are forbidden but the old penitentiary ruins are still there. This area presents a slope Atlantic Forest vegetation, in different stages of conservation, with the occurrence of primary forest in areas which access is really difficult, at 240m altitude. The forest formation, though is practically continuos, is called by different names according to the topography and points of reference: Mãe d’Água dam, Caxadaço, Parnaióca and Jararaca.
In spite of the modification provoked by the construction of the penitentiary with the dislocation of population, traffic of vehicles through Parnaióca trail mainly trucks, the introduction of exotic species, big plantations, there was a positive compensation concerning, mainly, the speculation with real properties.
In a certain way, the island remained preserved, keeping away the construction of hotels, during the years 70/80.
When the penitentiary closed the doors, there already was a certain environmental consciousness and there were plans to establish unites of preservations, forming biological corridors

Dois Rios beach
  until the south of the country. Nowadays, the few inhabitants are strongly involved with the preservation of island.
Jararaca (at 240m altitude) is a primary wood, located in higher areas with little human interventions and richer in Epiphyte. So, it presents a better stage of conservation with a canopy varying between 25 and 30m, many trees with 1.20m diameter and a deep layer of dropped leaves which can reach 120mm. There are many water sources which supply the Vila and this is an area of limited access where only the authorized people by UERJ can get in.
The vegetation near by the region known as "Mãe d’Água fall" has been removed during the construction of the Penitentiary in order to allow the entrance of vehicles. When the Penal Colony closed the doors, 25 years ago, the area started its own process of regeneration, presenting, nowadays, a secondary wood rich in epiphytes, with species varying from 12 to 15m height.
The secondary forest predominates in regions such as Parnaióca and Caxadaço where the sub-thicket is dense, predominating a wood with an entanglement of many thin climbing plants and a little number of epiphytes, except for some points in the interior where we can find authentic nooks with a vegetation very rich in epiphytes characterizing very well dense ombrophilous forest or Atlantic Forest. Besides, in many points of the forest, in general, in the direction of the beaches and falls, where the tourists go through, there are many degraded areas invaded by a species of pteridophyta.
Caxadaço Forest has been in regeneration since, at about, 50 years ago.

Sunrise at Vila Dois Rios

Aspidogyne argentea (Vell.) Garay terrestrial Caxadaço
Aspidogyne fimbrillaris (B.S. Wms) Garay terrestrial Jararaca
Cattleya forbesii Lindl. Epiphyte/Rupicolous Caxadaço, Mãe d'Água
Cattleya guttata Lindl Rupicolous Parnaióca trail
Cirrhaea dependens Rchb f. Epiphyte Jararaca
Cleistes macrantha (Barb. Rodr.) Schltr. Terrestrial Mãe d'Água
Cleistes sp. Terrestrial Abrahão road
Cochleanthes wailesiana (Lindl.) Schultes & Garay Rupicolous Mãe d'Água
Cyclopogon venustus (Barb. Rodr.) Schltr. Terrestrial Jararaca Trail
Dichaea cogniauxiana Schltr. Epiphyte Jararaca Trail and Mãe d'Água
Dichaea mosenii Cogn. Epiphyte Jararaca Trail
Dichaea pendula (Aubl.) Cogn. Epiphyte Jararaca Trail and Mãe d'Água, Andorinha river margins
Elleanthus brasilienis Rchb. f. Epiphyte/Rupicolous Jararaca and Mãe d'Água
Epidendrum filicaule Lindl. Rupicolous Jararaca and Mãe d'Água
Epidendrum fulgens A Brogn. Terrestrial Parnaióca
Epidendrum latilabre Lindl. Epiphyte Mãe d'Água (margins)
Epidendrum proligerum Barb. Rodr. Epiphyte Mãe d'Água (Dam and fall)
Epidendrum ramosum Jacq. Epiphytee Rupicolous 100msm Jararaca and Mãe d'Água
Epidendrum rigidum Jacq.
Epiphyte Outcropping peak and Cavalinho
Epidendrum rodiguesii Cogn. Epiphyte Jararaca
Epidendrum denticulatum Barb. Rodr. Rupicolous Outcropping peak and Cavalinho
Epidendrum paranaense Barb. Rodr. Epiphyte Jararaca
Erythrodes arietina (Rchb. f. & Warm) Ames Terrestrial Jararaca and Parnaióca
Erythrodes cotyledon Wawra Epiphyte Mãe d'Água
Gomesa crispa (Lindl.) Akl. & Rchb. f. Epiphyte Jararaca and Mãe d'Água
Habenaria leptoceras Hook Terrestrial Mãe d'Água
Huntleya meleagris Lindl. Epiphyte Jararaca (trail)
Liparis nervosa (Thunb.) Garay Terrestrial Jararaca and Caxadaço
Malaxis parthoni C. Morr. Terrestrial Mãe d’Água
Masdevallia infracta Lindl. Rupicolous Mãe d’Água (rock -100msm)
Maxillaria brasiliensis Brieg & Illg. Epiphyte Caxadaço
Maxillaria marginata Fenzl. Rupicolous Mãe d’Água
Maxillaria rufescens Lindl. Epiphyte Mãe d’Água
Maxillaria sp (Ornthidium) Epiphyte Mãe d’Água
Miltonia spectabilis Lindl. var. moreliana Epiphyte Jararaca
Myoxanthus punctatus (Barb. Rodr.) Luer Epiphytee Terrestrial Jararaca Trail and Mãe d'Água
Octomeria grandiflora Lindl. Epiphyte Jararaca and Mãe d’Água
Octomeria cf. stellaris Barb. Rodr. Epiphyte Mãe d’Água
Octomeria cf. bradei Schltr. Epiphyte Mãe d’Água
Octomeria grandiflora Lindl. Epiphyte Mãe d’Água and Jararaca
Octomeria cf. grandiflora Lindl. Epiphyte  
Octomeria cf. bradei Schltr. Epiphyte Mãe d’Água
Oeceoclades maculata (Lindl.) Lindl. Terrestrial Parnaióca and Caxadaço
Phymatidium tillandsioides Barb. Rodr Epiphyte Jararaca
Pleurothallis grobyi Lindl. Rupicolous Mãe d’Água
Pleurothallis saundersiana Rchb. f. Rupicolous Rock Mãe d’Água
Polystachya estrellensis Rchb. f. Epiphyte/Rupicolous Mãe d.Água and Parnaióca
Prescottia plantaginea Lindl. Terrestrial Caxadaço
Promenaea stapelioides Lindl. Terrestrial Rio das Pedras
Prosthechea fragrans (Sw.) W.E. Higgins Rupicolous Parnaióca
Prosthechea vespa (Vell.) W.E. Higgins Rupicolous Mãe d.Água
Prosthechea pygmaea (Hook.) W.E. Higgins Rupicolous Mãe d'Água (50msm)
Sophronitis cernua Lindl. Rupicolous /Epiphyte Parnaióca
Stelis sp. (1) Epiphyte  
Stelis sp. (2) Rupicolous  
Stelis cf. pterostele Hoehne & Schltr. (3) Epiphyte Jararaca
Stelis sp (4) Epiphyte  
Stelis sp. (5) Epiphyte  
Scaphyglottis modesta Schltr. Rupicolous Mãe d'Água
Xylobium variegatum (Ruiz et Pavón) Mansf Epiphyte Jararaca

Prof. Fontella

This project has the coordination of Professor Jorge Fontella Pereira, with the participation:

Leonor Ribas de Andrade – Master in Flore and Faune Ecology – Universidade de Brasília
Fernando da Costa Pinheiro – Master in Botany– Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro.
Iranilda Calado Santana - Master in Botany- Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro
Miriam Cristina Alvarez Pereira – Master in Ecology and Wild Life Conservation and Control - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais
Leonora Cardim – Herbarium Bradeanum trainee
  Angelo Carrancho Rayol – Herbarium Bradeanum trainee
Sérgio Gonçalves - Biologist, speleologist and archaeologist.

  All photos ©by Fernando Pinheiro

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