Brittonia, vol 56 (3) - 260.274, 2004

Fig. 18
Cyrtopodium lamellaticallosum

A. Inflorescence.
B. Flower, side view.
C. Flower, frontal view.
D. Callus.
E. Perianth.
a - b. Variations in lateral sepals and lip morphology, from different individuals of the same population.
F. Habit with almost fully developed leaves about 1-2 months after flowering. The apex of a one year old pseudobulb showing the remaining sheet of the leaves and the articulation pattern is enlarged.

Drawn from Batista et al. 1262 by Simone C. Souza e Silva.

Tipo: BRAZIL. Minas Gerais, Município de Moeda, 24 Out. 2001, J.A.N. Batista, L.B. Bianchetti, A. Salino, R.C. Mota & P.L. Viana 1262 (HOLÓTIPO: CEN; ISÓTIPOS: AMES, K, RB, SP).

Cyrtopodio cristato Lindl. similis sed bracteis floralibus longioribus et deflexis, petalis et sepalis brunneo-purpureis, labelli lilacino-purpureo cum callo lamellato marginibus irregulariter dentatis praedito differt.

Terrestrial herb. Roots many, whitish, glabrous. Pseudobulbs exposed or occasionally partially buried, ovoid, acuminate, leafless from the second year onwards, externally greenish, 5-11 x 1.4-2.4 cm. Leaves at flowering 7-8, incompletely developed but already apparent, 11-23 x 0.6-1.4 cm, when fully developed 9-10, erect, coriaceous, linear-lanceolate, the lowermost 1-2 sheath-like, the uppermost 8-9 16-35 x 1-1.8 cm, articulate 4.8-6.2 cm from the leaf base, the apex acuminate. Inflorescence lateral, erect, usually simple, occasionally with a lateral branch up to 13 cm long, lax, 19-35 cm, greenish to brownish green; peduncle 11-20 cm, the 1-2 sheathlike bracts loosely adpressed, 1.5-3 cm long, frequently also with 1-2 pair of opposite bracts with abortive flowers; rachis 9-18 cm long; floral bracts deflexed, parallel and partially covering the rachis, broad, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, occasionally opposite, 2-2.7 x 1.4-2 cm, brownish green, the apex acute, discreetly apiculate, the margins undulate; ovary with pedicel 1.9-4.7 cm long, brownish green. Flowers 10-15 per inflorescence, showy, discreetly sweet-scented. Sepals reflexed in fully opened flowers, broadly lanceolate to ovate or elliptical, 15-20 x 9-14 mm, dark brownish-purple, the apex discreetly apiculate, the margin slightly undulate; lateral sepals slightly oblique. Petals usually reflexed in fully opened flowers, slightly concave, broadly obovate-oblong, 14-16 x 11-14 mm, brownish-purple, base lighter, the apex rounded, slightly apiculate, the base attenuate, the margins entire, smooth. Lip 3-lobed, 10-12 mm long, 13-16 mm wide between the apices of the side lobes when spread, the base unguiculate, ca. 2 mm long, yellow; lateral lobes erect, not parallel, turned ca. 45o forward, reniform, (4-)5.5 x 6-7(-8) mm, the base and center lilac, towards the borders pinkish, the base constricted, the margins usually entire to occasionally slightly serrate; callus prominent, formed by (4-)6(-8) parallel lamellae, longitudinally extending from the base of the central lobe to the unguicule, the central 2(-4) lamellae rounded, thicker, yellow with the margins entire or slightly dentate, the outermost 2(-4) larger, slender, slightly spread, discreetly to profusely irregularly dentate, dark lilac; isthmus separating the lateral lobes from the central lobe discreet, ca. 1 mm long; central lobe, reniform to lunate and then with the lateral edges auriculate, 4-5 x 9-11 mm, the base and central part dark lilac, apex slightly orange, lateral edges yellowish, the lilac becoming faint orange with aging, the apex rounded or very discreetly retuse when flattened, the margin reflexed, slightly verrucose to completely smooth. Column erect, slightly arcuate, trigonous, 9-10 mm long, base yellowish white, middle lilac, towards the apex purple greenish; column foot 2-3(-4) mm long, at the very end immediately before the unguicule with a conspicuous dark brown stripe. Anther 3 x 2.5 mm, yellowish, apex green; pollinia 2, waxy, sulcate, ca. 1.3-1.5 x 0.8-1 mm, yellow, attached to a triangular stipe. Fruit not known.

Etymology. The epithet refers to the lamellate callus with irregular dentate margins, a very distinctive and unique characteristic in the genus.

Additional specimens examined. BRAZIL. Minas Gerais: Ouro Preto, 10 Oct 1977 (fl), Badini s.n. (OUPR); Mun. Moeda, Nov 1988 (fl), Martens s.n. (BHCB), Mun. Moeda, 18 Oct 1997 (fl), Salino 3610b (BHCB) (p.p., with Cyrtopodium poecilum var. roseum).

Cyrtopodium lamellaticallosum

Fig. 19 Inflorescence.
Note the large, deflexed, floral bracts partially covering the rachis and the reflexed flower segments.

Fig. 20 Cyrtopodium lamellaticallosum.
Pseudobulbs and young, incompletely developed leaves at the time of flowering (October).

Fig. 21a Young, recently opened, flower, front view.

Fig. 21b Mature flower, front view.

Fig. 22. Callus, lateral view. Note the
rounded lamellae with irregularly dentate margins.

Cyrtopodium lamellaticallosum was found in the campo rupestre, on dark, sandy-clay soil. This soil can retain water for a few days or weeks during the rainy season, November to March, but dries out completely during the dry season, May to September. Like most other Cyrtopodium species of central and southeastern Brazil, Cyrtopodium lamellaticallosum flowers during October and November, the beginning of the rainy season. Similar to most other Cyrtopodium species, a new vegetative shoot is formed at the time of flowering (Fig. 20), but leaves only become fully developed about two months later. Nonflowering specimens usually have larger leaves which reach full development earlier. Plants grow during the rainy season and are dormant during the dry season, when they loose their leaves. Cyrtopodium lamellaticallosum is sympatric with C. poecilum Rchb. f. & Warm., C. eugenii Rchb. f., and C. pallidum Rchb. f. & Warm. Flowering of Cyrtopodium lamellaticallosum and C. poecilum is concurrent, while C. eugenii flowers earlier, from June to September, and C. pallidum flowers later, from late November to early January.
Flower color is variable and changes with age (Fig. 21a). The lilac color turns to faint orange and the lip ends up with a yellowish orange color in older flowers (Fig. 21b). Some color variants with a completely lilac lip have also been observed. As in most other species in the genus, the column foot has a conspicuous dark spot at the base near the claw. The function of this spot is unknown; it might facilitate pollination.
Cyrtopodium lamellaticallosum is a very distinct species; it is not clear which species is most closely related to it. In overall aspect, with the small, exposed pseudobulbs (Fig. 20) and the usually simple inflorescence (Fig. 19), C. lamellaticallosum (particularly dried specimens), somewhat resembles Cyrtopodium cristatum Lindl. However, C. lamellaticallosum can easily be distinguished by the usually slightly larger flowers, the larger and deflexed floral bracts, the brownish purple sepals and petals, and the lamellate callus with irregularly dentate margins (Fig. 22). Lamellate calli are uncommon in the genus and only C. blanchetii Rchb.f. and C. hatschbachii Pabst, share this characteristic.

Fig. 24. Cyrtopodium hatschbachii.
Detail of the lip and callus..
Fig. 26. Cyrtopodium hatschbachii. Flower.

Fig. 25. Cyrtopodium blanchetii. Flowers
Fig. 23. Cyrtopodium blanchetii.
Detail of the lip and callus..

In C. blanchetii, the overall aspect of the callus, particularly of the central lamella, is similar to that of C. lamellaticallosum; in C. blanchetii there are always four lamellae, but are frequently less prominent, more elongated, and less rounded, and have margins that are entire or slightly irregular (Fig. 23). In C. hatschbachii, there are just two lamellae, which are larger, farther apart, and rounded, with smooth, sometimes slightly undulate margins (Fig. 24). Beyond these differences in the callus, Cyrtopodium blanchetti is usually from typical cerrado; has the pseudobulbs completely buried; petals and sepals spotted brown over a greenish background; lateral lobes of the lip spathulate, brownish; and the midlobe obovate-subrhombiform, yellow (Fig. 25). Cyrtopodium hatschbachii is from permanently wet areas; has larger pseudobulbs, 8-21 x 2.5-5 cm; the sepals and petals completely pink; and the lateral lobes of the lip elliptical and subfalcate (Fig. 26).s (Fig. 26).
Cyrtopodium lamellaticallosum is a rare species. It is known from just two localities at the southernmost Serra do Espinhaço in central Minas Gerais state. This species might be expected to occur at other sites or on other mountains in the Espinhaço range.

Brittonia, vol 56 (3) - 260.274, 2004
Brittonia, vol 56 (3) - 260.274, 2004

Type. BRAZIL. Minas Gerais, Município de Moeda, 24 Oct 2001, J. A. N. Batista, L. B. Bianchetti, A. Salino, R. C. Mota & P. L. Viana 1261 (HOLOTYPE: CEN; ISOTYPE: BHCB).

A varietate typica floribus fragrantibus et labelli lobis lateralibus roseis et marginibus lobi centralis roseis differe.

Etymology: The epithet refers to the pink margins of the central lobe and pink lateral lobes of the lip.

Additional specimen examined. BRAZIL. Minas Gerais: Mun. of Moeda, 18 Oct 1997 (fl), Salino 3610b (BHCB) (p.p., with C. lamellaticallosum).

Cyrtopodium poecilum var. roseum
Fig. 27a.
Fig. 27b.
Fig. 27c.
Detail of the lip and callus.

Cyrtopodium poecilum var. poecilum
Fig. 28a
Fig. 28b
Fig. 28c

Cyrtopodium poecilum var. roseum is morphologically identical to C. poecilum var. poecilum in vegetative and most floral characters. Both have mature pseudobulbs that are small, externally reddish-purple, and completely buried; large and broad leaves; a simple to 3-branched inflorescence; and sepals and petals profusely spotted brownish purple over a greenish background. The principal difference is the color of the lateral lobes and margins of the central lobe of the labellum, which are pink in the new variety (Figs. 27a-c) and brownish, reddish brown or reddish purple in C. poecilum var. poecilum (Figs. 28a-d). All specimens of C. poecilum var. poecilum that we have examined in the Distrito Federal have a discreet but unpleasant smell somewhat resembling rancid butter, C. poecilum var. roseum has a slightly sweet scent. This difference in flower scent may attract different pollinators. The pollinators and pollination mechanisms of C. poecilum are unknown.
The holotype of C. poecilum var. poecilum is from Lagoa Santa, central Minas Gerais, which is closer to the Municipality of Moeda than to the Distrito Federal, where we have collected more intensively and where we have found most of the material we have examined in situ. However, examination of the original description (Reichenbach, 1881) and original illustration (Warming, 1884) of C. poecilum revealed that the color pattern of the type material matches the specimens from the Distrito Federal. The specimens from the Municipality of Moeda with a distinct color pattern are considered here as a color variant. In the Distrito Federal, C. poecilum var. poecilum occurs preferentially on deep red clay latosol in typical cerrado or campo sujo and campo limpo vegetation. In the Municipality of Moeda, the variety was found growing on dark, sandy clay soil in campo rupestre vegetation, where it grew close to C. lamellaticallosum and C. pallidum. Both varieties of C. poecilum var. poecilum flower mainly in October and flowering is enhanced by fire. A visit to the Municipality of Moeda in one year revealed no specimens in flower, whereas in the next year, after the area had burned, a great number of flowering specimens were observed..
In general, color variants are better treated as forms rather than as varieties. However, for C. poecilum var. roseum, the color variation seems to be clearly fixed in the population, as most of the individuals had this character. Within this color variant, some differences in shade have been observed, e.g., a more or less intense shade of pink, particularly in relation to the margins of the central lobe, or a fading of the pink in older flowers, rendering the lip somewhat dull and discolored.

The authors thank Alexandre Salino for helping locate C. lamellaticallosum in the field and Julio Lombardi for the loan of material from BHCB. We also thank the curators of HB, HRCB, HUFU, IBGE, MBM, OUPR, R, SP, SPF, UB and UEC for loans or access to their collections; Simone C. Souza e Silva for preparing the illustrations; Tarciso Filgueiras for the Latin diagnoses; and Stephen Hyslop for reviewing the English. Gustavo Romero and Fábio de Barros read earlier versions of the manuscript and provided several helpful suggestions.

Literature Cited

Batista, J. A. N. & L. B. Bianchetti. 2001. Cyrtopodium linearifolium (Orchidaceae): a new species from central Brazil. Lindleyana 16: 226-230.

Bianchetti, L. B. & J. A. N. Batista. 2000. Cyrtopodium latifolium (Orchidaceae): a new species from central Brazil. Lindleyana 15: 222-226.

Cribb, P. & A. Toscano de Brito. 1996. Introduction and history. Pages 23–32. In: S. Sprunger, editors. Iconographie des orchidées du Brésil/João Barbosa Rodriguez. Vol 1. Illustrations. Friedrich Reinhardt Verlag, Basle, Switzerland.

Greuter, W., J. McNeill, F.R. Barrie, H.M. Burdet, V. Demoulin, T.S. Filgueiras, D.H. Nicolson, P.C. Silva, J.E. Skog, P. Trehane, N.J. Turland & D.L. Hawksworth (Eds.) 2000. International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Saint Louis Code) Regnum Veg. v. 138. Koeltz Scientific Books, Königstein.

Menezes, L. C. 1995. Novas orquídeas brasileiras (New Brazilian orchids). Boletim CAOB 6: 8-13.

Menezes, L. C. 2000. Genus Cyrtopodium: espécies brasileiras. Ed. IBAMA, Brasília.

Reichenbach, H. G. 1881. VII - Novitiae Orchidaceae Warmingianae. Cyrtopodium. Otia Botanica Hamburgensia 2(1): 58-60.

Sprunger, S., editor. 1996. Iconographie des orchidées du Brésil/João Barbosa Rodriguez. Vol 1. Illustrations. Friedrich Reinhardt Verlag, Basle, Switzerland.

Warming, E. 1884. Symbolae ad floram Brasiliae centralis cognoscendam, Part. 30. Orchideae 2. Videnskabelige Meddelelser fra den naturhistoriske Forening i kjöbenhavn 5-8: 86-99.

Photos: © João A. N. Batista

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