Myoxanthus Poepp. & Endl.
Nova Genera ac Species Plantarum 1: 50. 1836.
As mentioned by Michel Frey & N. Sanson when they described Myoxanthus conceiçoensis, Myoxanthus had a very agitating history. Soon after being established by Poeppig & Endlicher, the species-type of the genus (Myoxanthus monophyllus Poepp. & Endl.) has been transferred to Pleurothallis under the name Pleurothallis monophylla (Hook.) Fawc. & Rendle, first described (in l820), as Epidendrum monophyllum Hook.
In 1982, in Selbyana, Carlyle A. Luer reconsidered the validity of the genus and transferred to it many Pleurothallis species including 8 occurring in Brazil. In 1986, in Icones Pleurothallidinarum I, Systematics of the Pleurothallidinae, between another non-Brazilian species, he transferred Pleurothallis aspasicensis Rchb. f. under the name Myoxanthus aspasicensis (Rchb. f.) Luer. Almost 10 years after, the species has been reestablished by the same researcher and Pleurothallis aspasicensis Rchb. f. considered as a valid name.


Occurrence of Myoxanthus Poepp. & Endl. Brazilian species

species
nº Pabst
States
conceiçoensis M. Frey & N. Sanson
ES
exasperatus (Lindl.) Luer
1383
ES, MG, PE, PR, RR, RJ, SC, SP
lonchophyllus (Barb. Rodr.) Luer
1121
DF, MG, PA, SP
parvilabius (C. Schweinf.) Luer
AM
pulvinatus (Barb. Rodr.) Luer
1385
ES, MG, SP
punctatus (Barb. Rodr.) Luer
1119
MG, RJ
ruschii Fraga & L. Kollmann
1120
ES
seidelii (Pabst) Luer
ES
trachychlamys (Schltr.) Luer
1381
AC
cf talpinaria (Rchb. f.) Luer
RR
     

 

I - Chaetocephala lonchophylla BARB. RODR. e
II - C. punctata BARB. RODR.
Da "Mart. Fl. Bras.", vol. III, IV, t. 117, figs.: II e I respectively

  My. exasperatus  


Brazilian Species history

Myoxanthus exasperatus (Lindl.) Luer
- In 1843, in Botanical Register; the description of Pleurothallis peduncularis Lindl. Illegitimate name due to the publication of Pleurothallis peduncularis Hook, in 1841, in Journal of Botany;
- In 1859, in Folia Orchidaceae. Pleurothallis 15, the description of Pleurothallis exasperata Lindl.
- In 1882, in Genera et Species Orchidearum Novarum 2: 76, the description of Anathallis parahybunensis Barb. Rodr.
- In 1891, in Revisio Generum Plantarum 2: 667/8, the description of Humboltia exasperata (Lindl.) Kuntze
e Humboltia peduncularis (Lindl.) Kuntze
having as basionym Pleurothallis exasperata Lindl. and Pleurothallis peduncularis Lindl. respectively;
- In 1982, in Selbyana 7:36, Carlyle A. Luer described Myoxanthus exasperatus (Lindl.) Luer having as basionym Pleurothallis exasperata Lindley and considered Pleurothallis peduncularis Lindl. as synonym;
- In 1982, in Selbyana, 7:49, Myoxanthus parahybunensis (Barb. Rodr) Luer
has been described;
- In Icones Pleurothallidinarum IX, Carlyle A. Luer considered Myoxanthus parahybunensis (Barb. Rodr.) Luer as synonym of Myoxanthus exasperatus (Lindl.) Luer.


My. exasperatus - infertile plant

Myoxanthus lonchophyllus (Barb. Rodr.) Luer
- In 1877, in Genera et Species Orchidearum Novarum 1: 35, the description of Restrepia lonchophylla Barb. Rodr.
- In 1881, in Otia Botanica Hamburgensia 2: 93, the description of Pleurothallis warmingii Rchb. f.
- In 1882, in Genera et Species Orchidearum Novarum 2: 39, the description of Chaetocephala lonchophylla (Barb. Rodr.) Barb. Rodr. having as basionym Restrepia lonchophylla Barb. Rodr.
- In 1896, Flora Brasiliensis 3(4): 589, t. 117, f. 2. the description of Pleurothallis lonchophylla (Barb. Rodr.) Cogn. having as basionym Restrepia lonchophylla Barb. Rodr. Illegitimate name because of Pleurothallis
lonchophylla Rchb. f. published in 1886;
- 1982, in Selbyana 7:43, Carlyle A. Luer described Myoxanthus lonchophyllus (Barb. Rodr.) Luer and Myoxanthus seidelii (Pabst) Luer having as basionyms Restrepia lonchophylla Barb. Rodr. and Pleurothallis seidelii Pabst, respectively;

- In 1992, Icones Pleurothallidinarum IX Systematics of Myoxanthus, Carlyle A. Luer considered Myoxanthus seidelii (Pabst) Luer and Pleurothallis warmingii Rchb. f. as synonyms of Myoxanthus lonchophyllus (Barb. Rodr.) Luer;

- In 1997, in Icones Pleurothallidinarum XV, Carlyle A Luer reconsidered Myoxanthus seidelii (Pabst) Luer as a valid species.

My. lonchophyllus - infertile plant

Myoxanthus parvilabius (C. Schweinf.) Luer
- In 1962, in Botanical Museum Leaflets 20: 14, the description of Pleurothallis parvilabia C. Schweinf.
- In 1982, in Selbyana 7;49, Luer described the species Myoxanthus parvilabius (C. Schweinf.) Luer having as basionym the species mentioned above;
- In 2000, in Acta Amazonica 30(2) 181-186 registered the occurrence in Brazil, for the state of Amazonas.

Myoxanthus pulvinatus (Barb. Rodr.) Luer
- In 1882, in Genera et Species Orchidearum Novarum 2: 77, the description of Anathallis pulvinata Barb. Rodr.
- In 1896, in Flora Brasiliensis 3(4): 563, Cogniaux described Pleurothallis pulvinata (Barb. Rodr.) Cogn. having as basionym Anathallis pulvinata Barb. Rodr.
- In 1992, in Icones Pleurothallidinarum IX, Carlyle A. Luer described Myoxanthus pulvinatus (Barb. Rodr.) Luer having as basionym Anathallis pulvinata Barb. Rodr. considering Pleurothallis pulvinata (Barb. Rodr.) Cogn. as a synonym.

Myoxanthus punctatus (Barb. Rodr.) Luer
- In 1882, in Genera et Species Orchidearum Novarum 2: 38, Barbosa Rodrigues described the species Chaetocephala punctata Barb. Rodr.
- In 1896, in Flora Brasiliensis 3(4): 590, the description of Pleurothallis chaetocephala Cogn.
- 1982, in Selbyana, 7:49, Carlyle A. Luer described the species Myoxanthus punctatus (Barb. Rodr.) Luer having as basionym Chaetocephala punctata Barb. Rodr. and considering Pleurothallis chaetocephala Cogn. as synonym.

Myoxanthus ruschii Fraga & L. Kollmann
- In 2003, Novon 13(1): 49-51, f. 1, the description of Myoxanthus ruschii Fraga & L. Kollmann to the state of Espírito Santo.

My. ruschii - alive type - infertile plant

Myoxanthus seidelii (Pabst) Luer
- In 1975, in Bradea, Boletim do Herbarium Bradeanum 2: 54, the description of Pleurothallis seidelii Pabst;
- In 1982, in Selbyana 7:51, Carlyle A. Luer described the species Myoxanthus seidelii (Pabst) Luer having as basionym
Pleurothallis seidelii Pabst;
- In 1992, Icones Pleurothallidinarum IX Systematics of Myoxanthus, Carlyle A. Luer considered Myoxanthus seidelii (Pabst) Luer as synonym of Myoxanthus lonchophyllus (Barb. Rodr.) Luer;
- In 1997, in Icones Pleurothallidinarum XV, Carlyle A Luer reconsidered Myoxanthus seidelii (Pabst) Luer as a valid species.

My. seidelii - infertile plant

Myoxanthus trachychlamys (Schltr.) Luer
- In 1922, in Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis, Beihefte 17: 23, the description of Pleurothallis trachychlamys Schltr.
- In 1962, in Arquivos de Botânica do Estado de São Paulo 3(5): 268, t. 67, f. A. the description of Pleurothallis cymbicalli Pabst;
- In 1992, in Icones Pleurothallidinarum IX, Carlyle A Luer described the species Myoxanthus trachychlamys (Schltr.)Luer having as basionym Pleurothallis trachychlamys Schltr. and considered Pleurothallis cymbicalli Pabst as synonym.

Synonyms
Anathallis parahybunensis Barb. Rodr. = Myoxanthus exasperatus (Lindl.) Luer
Anathallis pulvinata Barb. Rodr. = Myoxanthus pulvinatus (Barb. Rodr.) Luer
Chaetocephala lonchophylla Barb. Rodr. = Myoxanthus lonchophyllus (Barb. Rodr.) Luer
Chaetocephala punctata Barb. Rodr. = Myoxanthus punctatus (Barb. Rodr.) Luer
Humboltia exasperata (Lindl.) Ktze. = Myoxanthus exasperatus (Lindl.) Luer
Humboltia peduncularis (Lindl.) Ktze. = Myoxanthus exasperatus (Lindl.) Luer
Humboltia warmingii (Rchb. f.) Ktze. = Myoxanthus lonchophyllus (Barb. Rodr.) Luer
Myoxanthus alexanderae (Schltr.) Luer = Pleurothallis aspasicensis Rchb. f.
Myoxanthus aspasicensis (Rchb. f.) Luer = Pleurothallis aspasicensis Rchb. f.
Myoxanthus parahybunensis (Barb.Rodr.) Luer = Myoxanthus exasperatus (Lindl.) Luer
Myoxanthus pastacensis (Luer) Luer= Pleurothallis aspasicensis Rchb. f.
Pleurothallis chaetocephala Cogn. = Myoxanthus punctatus (Barb. Rodr.) Luer
Pleurothallis cymbicalli Pabst = Myoxanthus trachychlamys (Schltr.) Luer
Pleurothallis exasperata Lindl. = Myoxanthus exasperatus (Lindl.) Luer
Pleurothallis lonchophylla (Barb. Rodr.) Cogn. non Rchb. f. = Myoxanthus lonchophyllus (Barb. Rodr.) Luer
Pleurothallis macropus Schltr. = Myoxanthus exasperatus (Lindl.) Luer
Pleurothallis peduncularis Lindl. = Myoxanthus exasperatus (Lindl.) Luer
Pleurothallis pulvinata (Barb. Rodr.) Cogn = Myoxanthus pulvinatus (Barb. Rodr.) Luer
Pleurothallis trachychlamys Schltr. = Myoxanthus trachychlamys (Schltr.) Luer
Pleurothallis warmingii Rchb. f. = Myoxanthus lonchophyllus (Barb. Rodr.) Luer
Restrepia lonchophylla Barb. Rodr. = Myoxanthus lonchophyllus (Barb. Rodr.) Luer

 
Bibliography
Carlyle A. Luer, Selbyana 7:51, 1982
Carlyle A.Luer, in Icones Pleurothallidinarum IX, 1992
Carlyle A Luer, in Icones Pleurothallidinarum XV, 1997
G. F. Pabst & F. Dungs, Germany, l977, Vol. I.Orchidaceae Brasiliensis.
M. Frey & N. Sanson, em Richardiana VI(I) Janvier 2006,
Pabst, in Bradea, Boletim do Herbarium Bradeanum 2: 54, 1975

Missouri Botanical Garden - http://mobot.mobot.org/cgi-bin/search_vast
Acta Amazonica 30(2) 181-186, 2000

Acknowledges
Instituto Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro nursery by the permission for taking photos of the plants included in this work which are part of its collection and Cláudio Nicoletti de Fraga, the curator of the Alive Collection of this Institution.



Photos: Sergio Araujo


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