As said in the last edition, the article published about the genus Pseudolaelia should include an interview with Michel Frey talking about his researches in Brazil. Unfortunately, he passed away letting a lacuna to his family, friends, admirers and researchers of Orchidaceae family.
Thus, we stayed waiting for, as a happy coincidence, for finding the interview in his HD and then we could have the "gros repas" he promised. His family, mainly his daughter Julia Seitre, made every effort in this search and, kindly, allowed the publication of it, as well as the photographs for illustrating. Although unfinished, we decided to show it as a small homage to him.
In this edition, two more species discovered and described by him are presented, kindly authorized by 'Richardiana', through the editor, Guy Chiron.

ON: Michel, could you do a little profile of you? Talk a little about your history.

MF: I was born in Mulhouse, in the east of France (Alsace), next to the frontier of Switzerland and Germany, 72 years ago, in an textile industrialist family.
When I was 5, I should run away with my mother and my sister, due to the german invasion. My father has been arrested by the invaders and we were sheltered in a house of my mother's aunt, in the center of France. I stayed there for 5 years in a small farm where I learnt loving the nature. We were in the middle of the country, in calcareous region where there were many orchids.
After the war, I came back to Alsace where I completed my studies and then I went to Paris. I was graduated by the Ecole Polytechnique (Polytechnic College), the biggest College for engineering in France but I decided to follow a career in a bank. After two years, I realized that it was not my way and changed to the industry where I stayed for 40 years. I started in Dakar (Senegal), with my young wife Marine, and then we came back to Alsace where I stayed. We had two boys and two girls and I retired in 1996, always interested in orchids.

ON: How did you become interested in orchids?

MF: I always love the nature and, coming back to Alsace, I discovered in my grandmother's house, many books about tropical orchids owned by my great-grandmother. Little by little, I fell in love.
In Paris, I had the first contacts with the local orchidists.
When I invited to a ball, I used to offer to my partner orchids to adorn her dress.
In 1947, my father built a small nursery on the garden and I started to cultivate Odontoglossums, Coelogynes, Cymbidiums. For my 24th anniversary, my parents offered me a Vanda coerulea.
I also started to travel, specially to tropical countries where I was luck to find orchids.
In 1964, we built our own house and the most important room was the nursery! My collection grew and, by 1990, I had at about 1.800 plants, some bought or exchange but most of them brought during the travels.

ON: And how Brazil came to your history?

MF: I came to Brazil, for the first time in 1984 and I discovered the Pleurothallis, Stelis and Octomeria what I still love very much. When I retired, I though about starting an activity of reforest with native trees. I bought a small farm, in mountain, in Venda Nova do Imigrante, where my son already lived since 5 years.
Soon my interest in orchids grew, specially after meeting Roberto Kautsky, Erico Machado, Wladyslaw and Savio.

ON: Since when are you studying Pseudolaelia and since then are doing field works?

MF: My first contact with Pseudolaelias was precisely in Monte Feio (Brejetuba, Espírito Santo), in 2000, where I had the pleasure to discover an orchid that seemed to me a new one.
I was with my dear friend Luiz C.F. Perim and him, as younger, walking 50 meters ahead. I said: "- Luiz, it is possible to find Pseudolaelias here. Look carefully the Vellozias and Nanuzas".
Five minutes after, Luiz shouted :" -There is one!"
I said : "-Do not touch, please. It can be the only one".
I got closer and saw that it was, by the appearance, a Pseudolaelia without flowers and we went on climbing. Soon after, we were in a field of thousands Pseudolaelias, with old floral stems. Immediately, I discovered a smaller plant, quite different, with very aggregated pseudobulbs, with paniculate floral stems that was really another thing.
We came back many times to Monte Feio, until found plants blooming.
The ordinary species, we identified as Pseudolaelia dutrae Ruschi and the other, for sure, was unknown.
By this time, I didn't have experience how to publish a new species. I asked many friends in France and, little by little, I succeeded in finishing, with Claudio Nicoletti de Fraga's precious help, the description of this new species which has been published in Bradea.
I became immortal. What could I desire more?
ON: Which habitats did you visit or still visit and what could you give as information about them?

MF: After that, I was luck to discover 3 new species of Pseudolaelia, always with Luiz (Carlos Perim), who visits, untiring, all 'morros' (mountains) of Espírito Santo and the closest in Minas Gerais:
Pseudolaelia maquijiensis, in the ''Morro do Maquiji, next to Baixo Guandu (ES), Pseudolaelia pavopolitana, in the Morro do Cruzeiro, next to Vila Pavão (ES) and - it deserves to be related - Pseudolaelia so ordinary in Monte Feio, that we had identified as P. dutrae, it was not!
Months later, walking through Morro do Maquiji, we found a pink very beautiful Pseudolaelia which were, no doubt about. dutrae. With the help of the Museu de Biologia Mello Leitão de Santa Teresa (ES) we got the original description of Pseudolaelia dutrae, done by Augusto Ruschi: nothing similar.

Pseudolaelia freyi
So, this ordinary plant that the local orchidists knew and named as P. dutrae, was a new species ! Due to the demanding of many friends, I asked Vitorino and Guy Chiron for doing the publication.
Thus, the plant was named Pseudolaelia freyi.
I still don't know if becoming twice immortal is better than one !
Besides, once again in Monte Feio, Luiz discovered a odd plant which had characteristics from P. brejetubensis and Pseudolaelia freyi. Soon, it became evident that it was a natural hybrid from those two plants. I published it under the name of Pseudolaelia x perimii.

P. brejetubensis

P. freyi

Pseudolaelia x perimii
Having meeting Guy Chiron during the preparation of the WOC in Dijon, I decided, since then, to publish in Richardiana, because the magazine could print color photos which was, of course, better.
(Note: The species mentioned are presented in Orchid News # 29).

Pseudolaelia freyi habitat in Monte Feio

ON: So, you discovered 5 new species, don't you?

MF: We discovered Pseudolaelia maquijiensis in morro de Maquiji, between Colatina and Baixo Gandu (ES). Many reports, not yet confirmed, indicate that there are yellow Pseudolaelias in the region of Santa Maria de Jetibá. I would like to point out that there are three yellow species.
Pseudolaelia canaanensis (ex Renata), very big, scented, very paniculate and without lateral lobes, Pseudolaelia maquijiensis and Pseudolaelia citrina, discovered by Roberto Kautsky 30 years ago, in Pedra Santa (Mutum, MG).
This species has an area of distribution at about some hectares and have never been found in another place. it is surprising that, in this context, P. brejetubensis should be found in Monte Feio (Brejetuba, ES) and not in the next morro and has been found by Wlad in Pedra da Invejada (Mutum, MG ) which is, at about, 15 km bird flight.

ON: Are there still new thing to be discovered?

MF: For sure, there is many things to be discovered inside this genus. The problem is climbing the morros which are, sometimes, inaccessible.

ON: In your field researchers, did you only discover species from this genus?

MF: After that, I published two more species: Myoxanthus conceicioensis, a small plant discovered next to Conceição do Castelo, by Nelson Samson, an excellent expert and orchids researcher of the region and Epidendrum josianae, a very big Epidendrum , found in Pedra Santa, next to Ibiruçu (MG).
About this plant, there is a doubt. Eric Hagsáter, the pope of Epidendrums thinks that it is similar to Epidendrum kautskyi. As I have, thank to Roberto Kautsky, a good knowledge of E. kautskyi and still have two related plants to study, I prefer letting this subject suspended until collecting material to be sure.

Luiz Carlos Feitosa Perim, Michel Frey's friend and traveling companion in his excursion through the habitats from Espírito Santo and some from Minas Gerais, tells a little about the partnership.

ON: How was your friendship with Michel Frey?

I had the privilege of meeting and being Michel's friend, organizing and bringing him to visit all habitats of pseudolaelias. I really miss him! Besides not having him as companion to excursions, when I find something new, I don't have him to clarify my doubts. I wish I will meet Wlad and Alek more. All new pseudolaelias have been collected together, and as I am younger, I always went the first and in the more dangerous place, I had the luck of finding them before Michel. The last one, Pseudolaelia pavopolitana had a different history. When talking with Euclidio Colnago, Wladyslaw and Luciano Zappi, we got to know about Pedra do Cruzeiro, in Pavão Village (north of the state), habitat of Encyclia espiritossantensis. It was a very well know place, already visit for all botanists and orchidists (besides those above mentioned, Ruschi, Kautsky, etc... visited there). As I hade drunk some beers the evening before, I decide not to climbing the rock in order to spare my self and stayed resting, at the foot of this while Michel, with an enormous exhaustion climbed until the peak. As he was lingered, I decided to do a stroll around the rock when I discovered, blooming, the wonderful Pseudolaelia pavopolitana, soon described by Michel. It comes to be the only one tricolor inside the genus.

ON: What could you point out about those excursions?

We found, for example, Pseudolaelia geraensis also in the state of Espírito Santo, more specifically in the extreme northwest of the state, in the boundaries of the state of Minas Gerais e Bahia.

ON: This is a new concurrence. What about Minas Gerais?

We visit the habitat of Pseudolaelia geraensis, next to Governador Valadares, in Minas Gerais, on inselbergs, at 300 m or less.

ON: You have found another species in Espírito Santo about what you are not sure.

For not arising polemics, we classified as Pseudolaelia vellozicola, but Michel and Vitorino (Paiva Castro Neto) pointed out two differences: not to grow on velozias and having the lobes of really different from the known velozicolas. Is it a new species? The habitat is placed at 600 m. altitude, in inselberg in the state of Espírito Santo, 7 km far from the coast. It occurs among the velozias, and does not accept competition of other vegetal species.

ON: What could you say about the habitat of Pseudolaelia freyi?

It occurs between vellozias and nanuzias, in 1200 m altitude in inselberg (granitic outcrop), in Monte Feio, Brejetuba, in the state of Espírito Santo.

ON: And what about the Pseudolaelia brejetubensis?

It is the same, at the same altitude, in inselberg (granitic outcrop) at the edges of the lathosol plaques.

ON: Which another species occur in Monte Feio?

There is also the natural hybrid Pseudolaelia x perimii
(Pseudolaelia freyi e Pseudolaelia brejetubensis) as well as Pseudolaelia canaanensis (ex-Renata canaanensis).

ON: And in the boundaries of Minas Gerais and Espírito that you have already visited?

In Pedra Santa (Mutum), at 1100 m altitude, occurs the Pseudolaelia corcovadensis. It is also the habitat of the endemic (at least at the present time) Pseudolaelia citrina discovered by Kautsky.

ON: Thank you, Luiz Carlos.


Michel Frey souvenir

Michel Frey, engineer and environmentalist, founded, in 1999, with his family and friends, the INSTITUTO JACQUES WALTER to reforest Atlantic Forest, re-introduce and develop the native fauna and flora.
With the head office placed in Venda Nova do Imigrante city, this institution develops projects of reforestation with native trees, makes registers and drawing of botanical species, promoting different census and environmental education between many other activities.
The lands owned by the institution are placed in the sources of Rio Castelo river, tributary of Itapemirim river, in the boundaries of the municipalities of Conceição do Castelo and Brejetuba, at about 1100m altitudes. Besides de the conservation of the natural remained areas, 400.000 native trees have been planted during the last years, in old areas before reserved to the culture of eucalyptus and to pasture. Between the activities which are currently developed, some should be that should be pointed out such as the execution of more than 350 scientific illustrations plates of orchids from Espírito Santo, ornithological census registering the occurrence of more than 200 species of birds and reception of authorities, communities, environmentalists, photographers and Brazilian or foreign scientists.

Av Domingos Perim,nº 563
Venda Nova do Imigrante - ES
Cep 29375-000
E -mails: e

Luiz Carlos Feitosa Perim, de Vitória - ES