The species Cattleya walkeriana Gardn. Cattleya loddigesii Lindl. and Cattleya x dolosa Rchb. f.
by Delfina de Araujo
Foto/Photo: Sergio Araujo
Cattleya walkeriana
(Photo: Sergio Araujo)
Cattleya walkeriana Gardn. (1843)

It occurs in many Brazilian states, Federal District, Goiás, Mato Grosso do Sul, Mato Grosso, São Paulo, Paraná but the center of dispersion is Minas Gerais.
Its habitat is quite diversified but, in general, it is dry during the winter. This plant can occur as epiphyte or directly on the rock. It is epiphyte in dry woodland, in the gallery forests of the small tributaries of São Francisco river (rivers and brooks) and on the tablelands on the big trees, in altitude more than 1000m. On the outcrops, in the central plateau (Minas Gerais, Goiás and São Paulo), it vegetates as epiphyte or on the rock and expose to full sun surrounded by the typical vegetation of cerrado (savannah).
The thought conditions found in some habitats (exposition to full sun, high temperatures during the day and long dry period)) are compensated by the clouds, mist and also by the drop of temperature during the night.

Its flowers are intensively scented (like roses) and are long lasting (from 3 to 4 weeks) and have between 6/8cm and 12/13cm diameter. They can be isolated or from 2 to 4 flowers in the same spike.
The buds arise from a floral atrophied leafless pseudobulb, contrary to the other species of
Cattleya which have their flowers arising from the normal pseudobulbs, in general vigorous and with leaves. The plants of Cattleya walkeriana type, as well as the variety princeps, eventually alternate this kind of blooming with the ordinary kind, it means, from a normal pseudobulb with leaves. The color varies from pink to purple or dark purple as well beautiful 'alba' and 'semi-alba'.

Natural hybrids
x joaquiniana Miranda -
Minas Gerais (C. bicolor Lindl.). Described in 1999.
x measuresii
Rchb. f. - (C. acklandiae Lindl.). Although this hybrid has been described, there is no register of occurrence of the two species in the same habitat.
x mesquitae L. C. Menezes – Goiás - Mato Grosso (C. walkeriana ‘princeps’ L.C. Menezes x C. nobilior Rchb. f.) Described in 1998 to the state of Goiás. The reference to the state of Mato Grosso was published in an article by Daniel Toledo, Brasil Orquídeas – ano 02 (6)108:111
Cattleya bulbosa Lindl. = Cattleya walkeriana Gardn.
Cattleya gardneriana
Rchb. f.= Cattleya walkeriana Gardn.
Cattleya schroederiana
Rchb. f = Cattleya walkeriana Gardn.
Cattleya princeps Barb. Rodr. = Cattleya walkeriana var. princeps L.C. Menezes
Epidendrum walkerianum Rchb. f. = Cattleya walkeriana Gardn.

Although well succeeded growers use pots for the cultivation, its disorganized and spread growth makes easier to be cultivated in hard wood slabs, wrinkled bark or alive trees. When cultivate in pots, be careful with the drainage and keep them hanged in order to allow a good ventilation. It needs strong luminosity and resents the excess of humidity during the cooler months. It should be well watered during the growth period. It can be cultivated in warm, temperate or even cool places, however mild temperatures are more adequate and when cultivated in hot place all year round, the blooming is not so exuberant. Very susceptible to aphids.

Often used in hybridization because it is an easy-to-grow plant besides the good substance and the good structure of the flowers.
Its scent and its vegetative bearing are transmitted to the progeny. The inconvenient is the number of flowers, in general, a few flowers in each spike.

Cattleya loddigesii Lindley. (1823)

It was the first Cattleya to be introduced in Europe.
Bifoliate Cattleya, it occurs in the state of Bahia, Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo but it is spread until Paraguay. The mainly habitats are situated in Minas Gerais and São Paulo on the slopes of the mountains covered by the Atlantic Forest, in regions covered by mist, situated between 500 and 900m a
ltitude. In the south of the state of Minas Gerais, it is frequent associated to C. walkeriana where the hybrid C. x dolosa is not rare.
It vegetates between 600 and 900m altitude. The flowers vary between 8 and 11cm but it can reach 12 cm diameter. The floral spike bear from 2 to nine flowers.
They emerge from a dried sheath contrary to Cattleya harrisoniana (with what is frequently confused) which flowers open from a green sheath.

Foto/Photo: Sergio Araujo
Cattleya loddigesii (Photo: Sergio Araujo)
The period of bloom starts later Fall until the early Springtime.
The color varies from soft pink until dark pink and the petals have soft undulated margins. This is a plant that has undergone by many crosses in order to get genetic improvements and for obtaining new varieties. So, nowadays, it is found in a quite good range of variety since the soft pink until the spotted pink besides the 'alba'.

It is more adequate to be cultivate under mild or cool temperatures or in a place where the temperature drops every night. It needs high humidity during the growth period and a reduction (not interruption) during the cooler months. It should be protected from the strong luminosity.

Beside Cattleya x dolosa, another natural hybrids have been found:

x hybrida Veitch (1863)- RJ (C. guttata Lindl.)
x o’brieniana
Rolfe - MG ( C. dolosa Rchb. f.)
x sororia Rchb. f. - sine loco, (C. bicolor Lindl.) (Synonym: C. X sanchesiana)
x valentine
- ES (C. warneri Moore)
x amoena Blue - RJ (Laelia perrinii Lindl.)
x fredna (?) - SP (Laelia lundii Rchb. f. )
x lambari Pabst - MG [Laelia crispata (Thunb.) Miranda]
x leeana Rchb. f. - ES [L. pumila (Hook.) Rchb. f.]

Synonyms of Cattleya loddigesii Lindl.

Cattleya arembergii Scheidw.
Cattleya candida Williams
Epidendrum loddigesii Rchb. f.
Epidendrum canaliculatum Velllozo
Epidendrum violaceum Loddiges
Cattleya ovata Lindley (l838)
C. X sanchesiana = x sororia Rchb. f.

Cattleya x dolosa Rchb. f. (1874)

It occurs in Minas Gerais and São Paulo

Second generation hybrid
x o’brieniana Rolfe - MG ( C. loddigesii)
x schroederaana Rchb. f. (or schroederiana Rchb. f.) - MG (C. bicolor Lindl.)

Synonyms of Cattleya x dolosa Rchb. f.
Cattleya eximia Barb. Rodr. = Cattleya x dolosa Rchb. f.

Cattleya walkeriana var. dolosa Veitch. = Cattleya x dolosa Rchb. f.

Epidendrum dolosum Rchb.f. = Cattleya x dolosa Rchb. f.
Foto/Photo: Sergio Araujo
x o’brieniana (Photo: Sergio Araujo)
Foto/Photo: Sergio Araujo
Cattleya x dolosa Rchb. f. (Photo: Sergio Araujo)

The occurrence of the other species referred for this habitat, registered in the Brazilian specialized literature:
Bletia catenulata Ruiz & Pavón DF, Goiás (GO), Maranhão (MA), Minas Gerais (MG), Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Mato Grosso (MT), Pará (PA), Rio de Janeiro (RJ), São Paulo (SP), Tocantins (TO)
Brassavola tuberculata Hook - Alagoas (AL), Ceará (CE), Espírito Santo (ES), MG, MS, Pernambuco (PE), Paraíba (PB), Paraná (PR), RJ , Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Santa Catarina (SC), Sergipe (SE)
Bulbophyllum plumosum (Barb. Rodr.) Cogn. - GO, MG, PR, RJ
Bulbophyllum warmingianum Rchb .f. - Bahia (BA), ES, GO, MG, RJ, SC, SP
Cyrtopodium cardiochilum Lindl. - ES, MG, RJ (species not well defined)
Cyrtopodium triste Rchb. f. & Warm.– DF, GO, MG, MS, MT,PA, SP, TO
Epidendrum avicula (Lindl.) Benth. - AL, DF, ES, GO, MG, MT, PE, PR, RJ, RS, SC, SP
Epidendrum secundum Jacq. - Amazonas (AM), Amapá (AP), BA, CE, DF, GO, MG, MT, PA, PE, PR, RJ, Roraima (RR), RS, SC, SP
Epidendrum dendrobioides Thunb. - DF, GO, MG, MT, RJ, RR, SP
Isochilus linearis (Jacq.) R. Br. - AL, CE, DF, ES, MG, MT, PA, PE, PR, RJ, RN, RR, RS, SC, SP
Oeceoclades maculata (Lindley) Lindley - AL, AM, AP, BA, CE, DF, ES, GO, MA, MG, MS, MT, PA, PE, PB, PR, RJ, RN, RR, RS, SC, SP
Oncidium euxanthinum
Rchb. f. or Oncidium varicosum Lindl. var. rogersii - MG, SP
Phragmipedium vittatum (Vell.) Rolfe - DF, GO, MG, MS , RJ, SP, TO
Pleurothallis johannensis Barb. Rodr. - BA, ES, MG, RJ
Sophronitis cernua Lindl. - AL, BA, ES, GO, MG, PE, PR, RJ, RS, SC, SP

Some synonyms
Epidendrum alsum Ridl.ex Thurn. = Epidendrum dendrobioides Thunb.
Epidendrum carnosum Lindl. = Epidendrum dendrobioides Thunb.
Epidendrum crassifolium Lindl. = Epidendrum secundum Jacq.
Epidendrum durum Lindl. = Epidendrum dendrobioides Thunb.
Epidendrum ellipticum Graham = Epidendrum secundum Jacq.
Epidendrum elongatum Jacq = Epidendrum secundum Jacq.
Epidendrum herzogii
Schltr. = Epidendrum secundum Jacq.
Epidendrum longihastatum
= Epidendrum secundum Jacq.
Epidendrum versicolor = Epidendrum secundum Jacq.
Lanium avicula
Lindl. = Epidendrum avicula (Lindl.) Benth.

Pescatorea - Jean Linden, Iconografia das Orquídeas, reedição Naturalia Publications - 1996.
Flora Brasiliensis, Volumen III Pars V. Von Martius.
The Manual of Cultivate Orchid Species - Helmut Bechtel - Phillip Cribb - Edumnd Launert - 3rd edition.1992
The Brazilian Bifoliate Cattleyas and Their Color Varieties , J. A. Fowlie.
the Cattleyas and Their Relatives,Vol I. The Cattleyas - Carl L. Withner. 1995
Orchidaceae Brasilienses - Pabst & Dungs - vol I 1975
World Checklist of Monocotyledons - - outubro 2007
Orquídeas da Chapada Diamantina Toscano de Brito e Phillip Cribb - 2005

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