seen Bulbophyllum and their cultivation
by Roland Schettler
During the last years several Bulbophyllum species came to the
collections of orchid growers and amateurs. Some of them are old friends
but some are really new, they have fantasy names just to identify them.
The difficulty for scientists is, without any origin, there is no chance
to describe them. The plants came from collectors and breeders in Vietnam
and the countries around. Some of them are very exciting, they produce
lovely colors and unusual flower forms. For the reason that Bulbophyllum
has somewhat as a renaissance some showy hybrids will also be shown.
Examples for these new members of genus Bulbophyllum are Bulbophyllum
lepidum, Bulbophyllum pectenveneris, Bulbophyllum
retusiusculum and Bulbophyllum frostii.
Some outstanding cultivated examples have been shown and directions
for cultivation and reproduction were given.
Schettler, after studying theology, philosophy and biology, works as
scientist at the field of biotechnology in the Institute of Pantbreeding,
Bundesforschungsanstalt für Landwirtschaft in Braunschweig, Germany
and also works as a high schoolteacher in Halver, Germany. He is one
of the founders of Vereinigung Deutscher Orchideenfreunde and their
president since 1995, since 1994 the Editor of Journal für den
Orchideenfreund, author of several articles and Editor of two books
in the field of orchids. He is a speaker and judge at WOCs and EOCs
and advertiser of judging the WOC in Dijon, France.
within the genus Dendrobium
by J. Devi, A. Mathews and P. C. Deka - India
Among orchids, Dendrobium, the second largest genus is known
for their beautiful flowers and diverse morphological features. In north-east
India, large number of Dendrobium species are found. With a view
to know the variability and relatedness among these species, isozyme
analysis were carried out. Ten different Dendrobium species and
three isozymes namely, Esterase (Est), Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase
(GOT) and Catalase (Cat) were used. Three zones of esterase activity
were observed. However, the number of bands varied between 1-4 depending
on the species. Similarly, three zones of GOT banding was also recorded.
D. aggregatum, D. primulinum, and D. amoenum showed 2
bands and demonstrated significant variation from rest of the group
all of which depicted 4 similar bands. No catalase bands were observed
in the species investigated except in the case of D. densiflorum
where a dark slow migrating band was observed.
Dendrogram obtained through analysis of the isozyme data divided the
orchid species into 5 clusters. The first cluster consisted of D.
farmeri and D. densiflorum, the second cluster consisted
of D. aphylum and D. transparens, the third cluster consisted
of D. primulinum and D. amoenum, the fourth cluster consisted
of D. moschatum and D. fimbriatum and the fifth cluster
consisted of D. nobile and D. aggregatum. Jaccard’s
distance values determined in the present investigation corroborated
the results obtained by dendrogram analysis.
Devi is an Associate Professor at the Department of Agricultural Biotechnology
in the Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, India. She has written
4 chapters in books on orchids and has 30 research publications. She
presented a lecture at the 12th EOC held at Copenhagen. Presently she
is carrying out a Research Project on development of post harvest technology
in orchids and other flowers.
influence of geometric constraints on the colonization, speciation and
range expansion of orchids on islands
by Dr David L. Roberts - England
The colonization and speciation of island floras has fascinated biologists
since the days of Wallace and Darwin. This is due to their isolation
which restricts the number of possible hypotheses that can explain evolution
events. Species richness, along a gradient, is a well-known phenomenon
and attempts have been made to correlate this with various environmental
factors. However, the potential influence of non-biological factors
has recently been highlighted. Since species ranges are constrained
geometrically (i.e. an island surrounded by an ocean), the number of
overlapping elevational ranges will be greater at mid-elevations and
therefore species richness will be greater. This is termed the 'mid-domain
effect' (MDE). In this study, species richness of orchids (Orchidaceae)
was studied along the elevational gradients of the Mascarene Islands
and the islands of the Gulf of Guinea. Here we show how geometric constraints
can effect speciation, future colonization and range expansion.
L. Roberts works at the Herbarium of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew,
and flowering of achlorophyllous orchid, Epipogium roseum under
by Takahiro Yagame, Masahide Yamato, Koji Iwase and Akira Suzuki - Japan
We have achieved cultivation of achlorophyllous orchid, Epipogium
roseum (D.Don) Lindl. from seed germination to flowering in association
with an applied mycorrhizal fungus isolated from the root of this plant.
Though seed germination did not occur on the conventional oatmeal agar
medium because of excessively vigorous growth of the mycorrhizal fungus,
seed germination, mycorrhizal colonization and subsequent growth were
properly induced in a soil medium containing sawdust and wheat bran.
It was revealed that this orchid has a peculiar life cycle as follows.
Subterranean stems were grown from a single protocorm, and tuberous
roots were generated at knots of the subterranean stem. The tuberous
roots were developed to so-called ‘coralloid rhizomes’ to
form tubers, and the ‘coralloid rhizomes’ were subsequently
degenerated with maturing of the tubers. Though 80 tubers were formed
from a single protocorm within half a year, only some tubers were found
to bear flowering stems. Others were remained underground and later
formed a subterranean stem again. Thus, the tubers were regarded as
an asexual reproductive organ in this orchid.
Yagame is graduated at the School of Science and Technology, Chiba University,
orchids – the Genus Oeceoclades
by Lourens Grobler
Terrestrial orchids are currently very popular in the orchid world and
rightly so. The genus Oeceoclades offers a new dimension to the
wide variety of terrestrial orchids currently grown around the world.
Some species have leaves that resemble a python or viper and they can
be grown for the enjoyment of their leaves only. Other species have
been called “the Bugs” because the flowers resemble insects.
The center of distribution is the amazing island Madagascar. The author
will give a detailed presentation on this genus. Special attention will
be given to the different species currently in cultivation and their
Lourens Grobler is currently the youngest accredited judge of the South
African Orchid Council and one of the directors. He travels extensively
to photograph and study the orchid flora of Southern Africa and works
in conjunction with local conservation authorities to determine the
status of South Africa’s orchids. In 2004 he was a speaker at
the Second International Orchid Conservation Congress (IOCC II) in Sarasota,
Kinds of Cytokinins Promotion Flowering of Cymbidium ensifolium
var. misericors In vitro
by Chen Chang & Wei-Chin Chang - Taiwan
Cymbidium ensifolium var. misericors is a popular terrestrial
orchid and is frequently marketed as a potted specimen. However, under
greenhouse conditions, at least 5 years are required from sowing to
flower development. This delay in flowering is a major problem in the
breeding of terrestrial Cymbidium.
This investigation established totipotent callus cultures of Cymbidium
ensifolium var. misericors from rhizomes. These calli could
be induced to develop either rhizomes, shoot buds or granular embryoids.
This work manipulated on cytokinin components to achieve mass flower
induction and development from the cultured rhizomes. Development of
a procedure for precocious flowering could allow pollen callus-derived
rhizomes of Cymbidium ensifolium var. misericors produced
flowers precociously on a defined medium. Among eight cytokinins, TDZ
at 3.3-10 µM or 2iP at 10-33 µM combined with 1.5 µM
NAA were the most effective combinations for achieving flower induction
in vitro. These undersized flowers were physically normal and bloomed
for two weeks in vitro.
Dr. Chen Chang is Ph.D. and works as an assistant research fellow
in Department of botany of National Museum of Natural Science, Taichung,
Wei-Chen Chang works at the Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica, Taipei,
Taiwan, Republic of China
kind of reproduction (print, digital or anyone other) of any
type of material of this site - texts, layout, photos, images
and others - is strictly forbidden without previous written
permission by the authors.