Orchids in Eastern Europe and their Conservation
by Dr. Irina Tatarenko - Moscow, Russian Federation


There are about 90 orchid species in Eastern Europe. Orchids in the boarder regions between Europe and Asia numbered 38 species in the Urales, and about 60 species in the Caucasus. Totally seven endemic species occur in Mountains of the Caucasus, Crimea, and the Carpathians. The largest genera are Dactylorhiza and Orchis having in Eastern Europe about 20 species each. The orchids are rare and endangerous plants because of intensive land exploitation. Most orchids are protected and listed in Red Data Books in all countries, except of Georgia, and in numerous regional Red Data Books in Russia.
Seven Conferences "Conservation and Cultivation of Orchids" were held from 1980 to 2003 in the former Soviet Union, Russia, and Ukraine. More than 700 papers and books were published on orchid distribution, morphology, ontogenesis, demography, mycorrhiza and pollination. These studies highly effected species conservation in a wild, as well as species propagation in vitro following by repatriation of plantlets into natural habitats. The most effective orchid conservation takes place in Nature Zapovedniks, and National Parks, where more than 90% of species occur. Cultivation in Botanical Gardens is successful for some orchid species.

Irina Tatarenko is graduated from Moscow State University in 1981, and received PhD there in 1991 for the study on orchids in the Far East of Russia. In 1991-1994, she dealt with Red Data Book of Russia. Since 1994, she has been working as a senior researcher in Moscow Pedagogical State University (Problem Biological Laboratory). She published more than 50 papers and a monograph on morphology, demography and mycorrhiza of terrestrial orchids.

Orchids and Sustainable Livelihood: An Initiative in Nepal Himalayas to Manage Globally Threatened Biodiversity
by Abishkar Subedi - Nepal


Orchids in Nepal locally known as ‘Sungava or Sunakhari’ and are the 'Hidden heritage of Himalayan Forest'. Its value has been deeply rooted in Nepalese culture and praised in several poems and folk songs. Over 400 species of orchids belonging to 102 genera have been reported from Nepal including 8 endemic species. However in recent decades, increased human population pressure, continuing poverty, land degradation, environmental change and national policies with adverse affects on utilization of orchids have contributed to the genetic erosion and illegal trade of orchids. In this scenario, to overcome above issues and for the effective management of Nepalese orchid diversity that laid to sustainable conservation and livelihood based program, six broad aspects have been identified by the initiatives. Information is being generated to answers following six key questions that support to formulate suitable strategies and models to manage the orchids as one of the potential income generating activities in the Nepalese mountain farming systems thereby securing valuable orchid resources for the future generation:
• What is the total amount, extent and distribution of orchid diversity over time and space?
• Where is the richness and unique diversity of orchids located?
• Who are involving in management of orchid genetic diversity in natural system and within communities and how ?
• What are the factors (social/biological) that influence over effective management of orchid genetic resources?
• How (methods, models, approaches) genetic diversity of orchids maintained in natural habitats, home gardens and ex-situ ?
• What are the use/values of orchid genetic resources and how they can be effectively utilized (materials, methods and market)?
Therefore, present paper highlighted the lesson learnt of initiatives. In the nut-shell the initiatives aims to demonstrate how scientific basis, community actions and effective collaboration can enhance management of one of the globally threatened biodiversity.

Abishkar Subedi was born in Nepal and had Master Degree in Botany. He is deeply engaged in exploration, documentation, identification, measurement and conservation of wild orchids Nepal Himalayas since 1995. He is specially interested in taxonomy, diversity assessment and developing participatory and community focused conservation strategies for wild orchids of Himalayas region. He added dozens of orchids to the Flora of Nepal. Due to his contribution to wild orchids research and conservation in Nepal he was awarded through 'Crown Prince Young Scientist of Nepal in the year 2003' by Royal Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (RONAST) which is highest award given to any young scientist of Nepal. Since 2002 he is professionally involving in national NGO called Local Initiatives for Biodiversity, Research and Development (LI-BIRD). As an program officer of LI-BIRD he is leading several projects related with In situ conservation of biodiversity of Nepal.


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