Thai Orchid Production for the World Markets
by Kanchit Thammasiri - Bangkok Thailand

Although Thailand is a natural habitat for over 1,100 species of orchids, orchid growing started as an expensive hobby for the rich and the elite about 90 years ago. The introduction of Dendrobium Pompadour was proved to be a landmark that also brought in popularity for orchid cultivation in Thailand. Orchid production technology (plant improvement, tissue culture, greenhouses, planting materials and containers, pest control, production, postharvest and packaging technology) replaced traditional growing which imitated natural growing. This resulted in high yield and quality of flowers and plants. In 1966, only a small amount of orchid cut-flowers were exported from Thailand to some European countries, but the country attained the status of the world’s leading producer and exporter of orchids in a little over a decade and it continues to hold the top rank since 1979. Orchids will continue to dominate other ornamental crops in Thailand due to better technology know-how, suitable climatic conditions, experienced and skilful growers and exporters as well as their nation wide popularity. Apart from all these, the orchids are a symbol of Thailand that reflects the country’s pride internationally.

Kanchit Thammasiri works at the Department of Plant Science, Faculty of Science, and Institute of Science and Technology for Research and Development, Mahidol University, Bangkok Thailand.

Advances in Brachypetalous Paphiopedilum Breeding
By Norito Hasegawa - Paphanatics Ltd

Brachypetalum hybridizing started in the late 1800s with a few primary hybrids. Another handful of secondary hybrids was created at the turn of the twentieth century. The group was virtually neglected for another half century with no hybrids being registered in the Sander's List of Hybrids. Then in the late 1970s and 1980s about five or so hybrids were again registered. In the last twelve years, this group has caught on with the Paphiopedilum fanciers with many new registrations of hybrids. There are several new directions that the breeding has led to: larger flowers (some exceeding twelve cm), dark flowers (some nearly solid red-purple), line breed albinos (pure yellows and whites), and many with large spots, as opposedm to dusted colors common to this group.

Adelaide Orchids goes to Bali
By Stephen Monkhouse - Adelaide Orchids, South Australia

Adelaide Orchids was originally launched in 1962 by my parents Sydney & Shirley Monkhouse in a small suburban house block in the inner suburbs of Adelaide, South Australia. The nursery grew quickly and a new nursery site was purchased in the southern suburbs of Adelaide. This new property consisted of 6 acres and the orchid business branched into the cut flower export business and pot plant business within Australia. The orchid production consisted of Cymbidiums, Paphiopedilums, Cattleyas, Odontoglossums and a few Zygopetalums.
During 1992 a change of direction was a must with my parents embarking on a semi-retirement plan. In conjunction with my wife Robyn, we continued Adelaide Orchids at a brand new location in Woodcroft, South Australia. Our stock/stud plants consisted of Paphiopedilums, Cattleyas, Odontoglossums and Australian Natives with a few Zygopetalums.
With a need to develop a new orchid strain, we embarked on the Zygopetalum Genus. Having limited species available and a few inter-generic hybrids to work with, we were blessed with some fantastic results that just seemed to improve with every flowering.
Now some 12 years later the Zygopetalum has been re-launched as a distinct addition to the orchid family. The new colour range has been revolutionized into a rainbow of colours and different combinations. The plant sizes have been improved making the new Zygopetalum a much smaller grower and more freely flowering. Perfume is a very important aspect and this also has been addressed with fragrances ranging from vanilla, to rose, to spicy and sweet. We have found the plants are becoming increasingly tolerant to all different growing conditions. The Zygopetalum was originally regarded as a cool grower only, but in recent times, we have had customers all over the world experiment with different conditions, from indoors all year round in Oklahoma to semi-tropical conditions in Florida, where the plants are housed in airconditioned and artificially lit basements with fabulous results.
Now the move is on to our latest orchid venture in Bali, Indonesia. The location of the property is high into the mountains of Bali at an elevation of 1200 metres. Zygopetalums grow the best I have ever seen here with flowering around every 2-3 months.

Stephen Monkhouse has given, during the last 13 years, presentations throughout Australia and overseas. He has involved as a judge, exhibitor and speaker at the Asia Pacific Orchid Conference held in Fukuoka, Japan and also at the 16th WOC & 17th WOC. We have contributed articles to renown worldwide publications eg. The AOS Bulletin, The Orchid Digest, The Orchid Review, & Orchids Australia on Zygopetalums.

Cattleya pot plant business through Japanese auction company
Haruhiko Nagata - Nagata Engei and Frontier Orchids - Japan

The Cattleya cut flower business is quite popular, not only in Japan, but all over the world. Typically, the much smaller Cattleya pot plant business identifies with the orchid hobbyist. In this paper, the focus is upon the Cattleya pot plant business for Japanese commercial growers, facilitated base through the auction.
1. Selection standards
a) Stable quality in production
b) Stable availability (year around)
c) Low cost production
d) Responsive to special cultural techniques
2. Ease of grooming for sale
a) Cleaning plant and pot
b) Brushing bulbs and leaves
c) Staking main flowering stem
d) Wiring sub flowering stems
e) Wrapping flowers
f) Labeling accurately
g) Boxing
h) Invoicing

Following preparation by the grower, the cattleyas are trucked to the auction site where they are quickly sold to the highest bidder. Soon after, the plants are delivered to ordinary consumers through the typical distribution channels, i.e. auction, wholesalers, and retailers.
Here, I believe, there are two key points Cattleya pot plant business in Japan. One is the presentation (grooming) is quite important for successful trade at the auction. Since there is literally no time for the grower to tell buyers about the special aspects of his plants, he must rely on the favorable appearance of his product to encourage the auction sale. The other point is that the plant and its flowers must be properly prepared to tolerate handling during the distribution process. Both requirements are critical to receive credit for the transactions.
The Cattleya pot plant business promises expanding opportunity for sales when executed through Japanese auction companies during the recovering economy.

The Future of Standard Cattleyas
By Arthur E. Chadwick - Chadwick & Son Orchids Inc

Cattleyas have been one of the most successful commercial orchids since their discovery in the early 1800s.
For most of the 19th century, new Cattleya species and their fine varieties commanded exceptionally high prices as potted plants in Europe.
The next 60 years found Cattleyas even more popular; this time as cut flowers for use in arrangements and corsages in the United States. The remainder of the 20th century saw the demise of the cut flower industry but the return of the potted plant market – now as hybrids in both the traditional cut flower colors (white, purple) and the new art shades (red, yellow, orange, etc).
Along the way, two major technological advancements facilitated the spread of Cattleya popularity – in 1922, Lewis Knudson’s seed propagation and in 1964, Vacherot & Lecouffe’s cloning. One can only imagine what possible technological advancements could transpire in the 21st century to revolutionize, once again, orchid production (genetic engineering?).
The new millennium begins with orchids at an all time high in popularity - Ranking #2 in houseplant sales (behind poinsettias) in the United States. To better understand the market potential for Standard Cattleyas, a survey was taken of the major U.S. Cattleya commercial growers with the results discussed here.
Standard Cattleyas have many advantages over other orchid genera from a marketing standpoint including large flower size, sweet fragrance, and year round availability, yet the ‘Queen of Orchids’ has not gained the enormous public acceptance that Dendrobiums, Oncidiums, and Phalaenopsis have.
We will look at the challenges facing the Cattleya industry given the inherent shortcomings of the genus (short-lived flowers, higher sunlight requirements, slow growers, etc) and what is being done to minimize the effects.
It is often said that fashion is cyclical - could we return to the cut flower days of Standard Cattleyas? We are already seeing a renewed interest in the Cattleya species of the 1800’s

Colombian Cattleyas
By Thomas Toulemonde

A large set of Colombian Cattleya species was studied for over 10 years to determine the actual satus of conservation of the species, and to have a complete pictorical index of the color variations of each of the eight Cattleya species studied. Using this pictoral index the possibility of chromatic and morphologic variations depending on the place of origin was explored.Not only a very large set of morphologic and chromatic variations was determined but also important color differences were found depending on the place of origin. This finding was confirmed by the use of flowered seedlings from plants originating in the different regions and specific habitats. Also new color variations have been discovered which open the possibility of using these varieties to get new commercially viable hybrids.

Thomas Toulemonde was born New York City and lives in Colombia. He is graduated the Purdue University; West Lafayette, Indiana, as Bachelor of Science degree in Agronomy and plant Biochemistry. He became Master of Science degree in Botany and Plant Physiology at Cornell University; Ithaca, New York. He has already published some works on Orchids: Proceedings of the XX International Orchid show of Colombia (1995), Field guide for the classification of the genus Gongora Ruiz & Pabón. Systematics (1999). The Colombian Cattleya species and their color variation. Descriptions ( 2004) and have a web site ( on Cattleya species.

New Hobby Cattleya from Far East
By Munekazu Ejiri

Cattleya is most beautiful orchid. So many different type of size, shape and color and also very sweet fragrant too. Japan is well known Cattleya Country, especially Miniature to Medium size Cattleyas now.
Most of Large size Cattleya has been grown for mainly cut flower use purpose long time in the western world especially for corsage. But it was not become same way in Japan. Not many people use Cattleya flowers to Corsage, but people enjoy to grow Cattleya and also collect many different types as a hobby in Japan.
Our Cattleya breeding line is for hobby market. Hobby market is not big, but we have been breeding our Miniature to Large Cattleya over 20 years. And now we have many many different size, color and shape of Cattleyas. Mass production of Orchid may kill Orchid hobby market, but maybe this is an idea how small orchid grower survives in big wave of mass production orchid world.

Munekazu Ejiri is graduated by Tokyo University of Agriculture, since 1986, works at Suwada Orchid Nursery, he is a member of the Japan Orchid Growers Association (JOGA). And also JOGA Judge, Chairman of Public Relations Committee for Japan Orchid Growers Association.

Golden Peoker… golden parent !
By Howard S. Ginsberg

Phal. Golden Peoker, a hybrid registered in 1983, is fast becoming one of the most important influences in novelty Phalaenopsis breeding. Already the parent of well over one hundred registered hybrids, Phal. Golden Peoker is a triple threat: first of all, there are its own hybrids (e.g. Perfection Is, Brother Kaiser, Brother Peacock, etc.); then, as the parent of Phal. Brother Purple, it has changed the face of red hybridizing with regard to the size and number of flowers as well as the overall quality of its progeny (e.g. Brother Supersonic, Brother Precious Stones, etc.); lastly, through the various mutated cultivars, Phal. Golden Peoker is responsible for a whole new line of hybrids, the “harlequins” (e.g. Ever-Spring King, Ever-Spring Light, etc.).

Assuring the future for Odontoglossum hybrids
By Robert M. Hamilton

In the last two decades, orchids have risen to rank as a major commercial flowering plant crop. For various reasons requirements for commercial plants obviate certain orchid varieties in spite of their beauty. Odontoglossum hybrids are arguably amongst the most beautiful flowering plants. Odontoglossum was the genus of major commercial interest when the orchid-craze began but has gradually taken a backseat to more heat-tolerant, easier to grow tribes. A few specialty growers continue to grow odontoglossums and today’s hybrids contain the extraordinary gene pool from the premier plants of the last centuries species. This gene pool will be lost given the reduced interest in odontoglossum hybrids unless directed efforts are made to preserve it. This genetic resource should be kept viable through intelligent, directed breeding programs. This talk is a brief review of the past, the present and a more extensive roadmap for future odontoglossum breeding. It specifically discusses our ability to characterize chromosome numbers and manipulate them along with basic breeding strategies to isolate and preserve desirable traits. Without concerted effort, the grandeur and beauty of this extraordinary genus will become extinct.

Robert Hamilton is a lifelong resident of Berkeley, California. He is presently the Equipment and Facilities Manager of the University of California, Berkeley Microfabrication Laboratory. He currently breeds, flasks and grows Odontoglossum hybrids and species with an eye to preserving and improving. He began to specialize in this genus in 1980.

New hybrids from the Singapore Botanic Gardens
By Tim Wing Yam and Aung Thame - Singapore Botanic Gardens

The orchid breeding programme in the Singapore Botanic Gardens was initiated more than 70 years ago by Professor R. E. Holttum. His first hybrid, Spathoglottis Primrose (Spathoglottis aurea x Spathoglottis plicata), flowered in 1931. Since then, our breeding programme focuses in two major groups, dendrobiums and vandaceous orchids.
Building on the firm foundations established by those who worked in the past, we would like to make further improvements and breakthroughs, such as creating new colours and longer lasting and showy hybrids.
Recently, we started to breed polyploid hybrids. So far, the tetraploid hybrids flowered are promising. Flowers of these plants tend to have better texture, are bigger and have more intense colouration.
We have produced hybrids with exciting new colours as such orange and red antelope dendrobiums. A dark chocolate-coloured ascocneda. We also use as parents species that were seldom used before such as Dendrobium singkawangense, Staurochilus loheriana, Vandopsis waroqueana. Some of these hybrids have flowered. They are interesting and possess unique characteristics that are different from the more common hybrids. We believe that these new hybrids will lead us to new and exciting breeding directions.

Dr Tim Wing Yam is a senior reseracher at the Singapore Botanic Gardens

The Oncidium Alliance With An Emphasis On Caucaea
By Harry Zelenko

The presentation will consist of showing a series of photographic slides of the oncidium alliance. these new world orchids range from mexico south through central america and into south america and the the caribbean. a focus will be on the very beautiful Caucaea (the genus has recently been renamed based on dna and was formerly called cucullata). Two well-know taxonomists had named and written about "species" within the group. Growing nearly 100 plants of caucaea from different areas of ecuador, I have observed a profound similarity between members of the different groups in the genus, suggesting that there are many fewer species than previously thought, and that they are most likely geographic varieties.

New Directions in Vanda Breeding
By Martin R. Motes, Ph.D.

Vandas are among the most popular orchids grown in tropical areas but are somewhat overlooked by temperate greenhouse growers. In part this neglect results from the overuse of Euanthe sanderiana in breeding programs. While conferring large size and full shape on its progeny, E. sanderiana also unfortunately begets large, slow growing plants which require extraordinarily high light and temperatures difficult for temperate zone growers to provide. The solution to this problem is to follow the lead of early hybridists in France and Germany who bred E. sanderiana to true Vanda species, producing temperature tolerant, free flowering hybrids. With this success in mind and building on the success of Thai breeders in producing E. sanderiana hybrids in a range of colors, the author has produced numerous award winning hybrids that are vigorous, precocious, free flowering and strikingly beautiful. These hybrids not only require less light and heat but display a new range of colors and pattern. While much more suited than standard hybrids for temperate green houses, these hybrids also out perform standard types in the tropics where they bloom sooner and more often.

Martin R. Motes is Ph.D. and has grown orchids for fifty years. He has authored Vandas: Their History, Botany and Culture, articles in international journals and has spoken at numerous conferences. Scores of his hybrids have received awards recognition from the AOS and RHS

The Commercial Importance of Australian Native Orchids
By Ray Clement - Tinonee Orchids

This presentation will discuss the commercial importance of Australian Native Orchids, concentrating on Dendrobium, Sarcochilus and Phaius. We will look at the important species within these genera, examine their insitu habitat, and discuss the natural environment in which they grow.
The development of hybrids from these genera will be discussed, with the latest and most successful cultivars demonstrated, with particular emphasis on commercial uses for these plants.
The future direction of breeding, considering the desirability and limitations of certain cultivars will be discussed, with some speculation on what can be achieved in the future.
This talk will highlight the ease of culture, detailing cultural requirements, look at their unique charm and the exceptional colour diversity and combinations that make this group of orchids unique and popular pot and garden plants.

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