Atwood, John T.
Marie Selby Botanical Gradens, 811 s. Palm Ave., Sarasota, FL 34236, USA

Data on horizontal and vertical ranges were taken from more than 3000 herbarium specimens and analyzed for patterns of distribution. Maxillaria (sensu lato) comprises about 9% (106 of about 1200 spp.) of Costa Rican Orchidaceae. Costa Rican species of Maxillaria, which range from 0-3250m, include more than 22% of the genus(ca 475 spp). Species diversity is greatest at 1000-1500 m where 72 spp. are known. About 20 species are known only from Costa Rica (19%) although four of these are expected to be found in neighhoring countries. However, endemism is increased to 39% with the inclusion of ranges in neighboring Panama. The 20 species acepted as endemic cover the full vdertical range of the non-endemic species with peak diversity correspondingly similar at 1250-1500 m. Twenty-eight percent of the spectes range northward while 73% range southward a number that could increase to 79% if extended southern range limits of other taxa can be established. Only 22% range both northward and southward. At least 49% range only southward while less than 7% range only northward, a percentage that could fall to 2% if range limits of several taxa are extended into Panamá. Only 10% of the Costa Rican species range from Costa Rica into South America. Not unexpectedly, widths of horizontal and vertical ranges are moderately correlaled (r=0,3149, P-0.00000) witch probaly is a reflection of ecological tolerance. Conservation strategies for Costa Rican species of Maxillaria involving large habitat preservation efforts should on mid elevation sites and include at least western Panama. However, such strategies would require that endemics at elevation extremes be considered individually.


Válka Alves, Ruy J.
MUSEU NACIONAL - Depto. de Botânica
Quinta da Boa Vista, Rio de Janeiro 20940-040, RJ, BRASIL

From long before CITES, though the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, till the present, the effects of collecting wild plants in different parts of the world is being ferventhy discussed: While the layman finds it easier to simply condemn any collection at all, researchers and private growers alike find themselves in the midst of a bureaucratic maelstrom wich tends to support that position. The potential for propagation and conservation by private collections is discussed in the light of new evidence and specific examples are provided is this lecture, pocused on the particular case of collectors in the Czech Republic. (Slides are presented).


Two distinct techniques of executing floral analysis in orchids are presented. The first involves the use of a slide projector and the second the use of a darkroom equipped with black and white photography materials. The importance of floral analysis is discussed for the family.


Luer, Carlyle A.
3222 Old Oak Drive
Sarasota, Fl 34239, USA

The Fahkahatchee Swamp is an extensive, inundated forest in southwestern Florida. It was logged for cypress before and during World War II, but some virgin portions remais. The rest has partially regenerated during the past 50 years. Aproximately 25 species of epiphytic orchids from the nearby parts of tropical America can still be found there. Nome is endemic.

Photographs of the swamp and each of the orchids that ocurs there will be shown and briefly discussed.


Hirtz, Alexander
P.O. Box: 17-1200358, Quito - ECUADOR

The Amazon has one of the highest bio-diversities in the world. The last glaciation ended about 1200 years ago, where the Amazon was at least 5ºC cooler. The vegetarion was mainly Podocarpus conifer forests in the Upper Amazon, and savannahs and deserts in the Lower Amazon, inhabited by the famous mega-mammals, now extinct. Dramatic climate change to tropical heat triggered adaptive radiation, the evolutionary process by which a species diversifies into a large number of new species. Thousands of orchid and other plant species, and a million insects species appeared in a few centuries in this new born ecosystem of the Amazon. Random mutations started to produce variability eithin the new species and natural selection started to eliminate the weak.

Orchids, like every organbic life being, must sense, be aware, and respond to its changing surroundings. Becoming more clever every day, are now enslaving the mycorrhiza, prisoners in the orchid's roots, for these to feed nutrients to the new master taken from the bark or the organic soil, which only fungi is capable of braking down. Bacteria can obtain or transmit genetic information relatively freely, such that taxonomicaly different "species" can trade genes at any time. Endosymbioant bacteria, incorporated as organelles in the cells of orchids, seem able again to obtain genetic information, this time about the needs and desires of insects. When abrupt adaptive radiation takes place, the new species of orchids will have matched the requirements of insects, inducing them to pollinate the orchid's flower.

The Amazon is a new born baby, with no time to mature. The introduction of exotic life forms into this embryonic ecosystem is changing it. Planet Earth requires the reduction of COO to keep itself cool and needs the forests of the Amazon. We need new formulas for sustainable growth. If all you do is stop buying jungle colected orchids or expensive tropical wood, for survival, Amazonians will have to cut trees tenfold and sell it as charcoal. Don't just say don't. Life a single whole and we are part of Life. We heal the Amazon, we heal ourselves.

S. Reidl and A. Hirtz have founded TROPICAL 2000. With personal funds, S. Reidl is buinding a controversial sailboat to sail single-handed the Vendee Globe Challenge around the world, the goal: world awareness to the sailboats name: "PROJECTO AMAZON".


Van den Berg, Cassio1 e Paulo Sodero Martins2

* This study is part of the first author's Master of Science Thesis, presented to the Postgraduation in Ecology. Biology Institute. Campinas State University (UNICAMP), whith the second author as adviser.

1Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP) and Departamento de Genética, Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz Queiroz" USP. Caixa Postal 83. CEP 13400-970, Piracicaba, São Paulo, BRASIL
2Departamento de Genética, Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz"/USP, Caixa Postal 83, CEP 13400-970, Piracicaba, São Paulo, BRASIL

The genus Cattleya has 51 species. of which 29 occur in Brazil and 23 are endemic to this country. Distribution maps and information about the morphological variability in a populational sense are quite rare, although there are several studies in a taxonomic view. Finally it remain in the genus some doubtful closely related pairs of species; Cattleya loddigesii and Cattleya harrisoniana, Cattleya granulosa and Cattleya schofieldiana, Cattleya guttata and Cattleya leopoldii, Cattleya warneri and Cattleya labiata. This study aimed at drafting good distribution maps of each species and analysing the morphological variability of each species inside its geographical range in a taxonomic view, we intended to check the differences between doubtful species pairs. We used data from botanical material deposited in 20 brazilian herbaria to draft the distribution maps. We assessed morphological variability within 75 population sites using 1446 plants of 21 species. These plants were collected between 1950 and 1980 and have been kept under standard growing conditions at Departamento de Genética, ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. We measured 25 floral and 4 vegetative variables of each plant, which were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods (Cluster Analysis, Principal Component Analysis and Discriminant Analysis). The results of this study were: detailed distribution maps for all species, an evaluation of the taxonomic validity of the doubtful species and information about the intraspecifical morphological differences. Additionaly we accomplished theoretical inferences about biogeography and evolution of brazilian Cattleyas, by comparing the geographical patterns we found with paleoiogeographical studies in angiosperms, birds and butterflies.


Wickramasinghe, Rohan H.
Institute for Tropical Enviromental Studies, 41 Flower Road, Colombo 7, SRI LANKA (Fax No.: 00941575294, e-mail rohan@ites.ac. ik).

Sri Lanka is an island located to the south east of India and between East Africa and Malasia. Though the country is small (area 65,610 sq.km), its fama and flora are of considerable evolutionary interest, parthy due to their isolation on and island parthy due to the variety of climatic zones. The lnd rises from sea level to central highlands of up to 2524m elevation, while districts may very considerably one from the other in annual rainfall.

Due to the above factors, there is considerable endemicity present in types of fauna and flora. Among the orchids, of the 167 indigenous species seventy six are endermic.

The foundation of the taxonomyu of Sri Lanka's indigenous orchids was presented by Jayaweera in the revision of the "Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon" originally published by Trimen in 1893 to 1900 in five volumes. However, insufficient study has been made of the biology of these species.

Many or most of the indigenous orchids of Sri Lanka may be presumed to be under severepressure due to factors such as jungle clearing, urbanisation, climate change, pollution and loss of pollinators Some of the species may be extinct already. A study has thus been initiated on aspects of the natural history of Sri Lanka's orchids. The present contribution is the second par of these studies which it is hoped will assist and encourage establishing a programme of conservation of these species.


Waechter, Jorge Luiz
UFRGS - Depto. Botânica, Av. Paulo Gama s/n, 90046-900 Porto Alegre, RS, BRASIL

Geographic patterns and diversity gradients of epiphytic orchids in eastern subtropical South America were analysed. The study area was defined by the there South Brazilian states, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, and the two amphiplatean territories, Uruguay and Buenos Aires (province). This northeast - southwest latitudinal strip is totally included in a region with subtropical or warm-temperate moist climate, associeted with eastern margins of the continents. The floristic survey a broad analysis at the generic level and a detailed investigation of a smaller segment, the Coastal Plain of Rio Grande do Sul, at the specific level. Basic information for geographical documentation was compiled from regional floras and orchid revisions. The Riograndean Coastal Plain was intestigated by intensive and estensive field work. A relatively high number of neotropical orchid general with epiphytes extends southwards into eastern subtropical South America. In this region, a manifested latitudinal gradient in generic diversity was detected, with a major impoverishment southern of Rio Grande do Sul. Many genera were represented by a single species. The detailed investigation of the Coastal Plain of Rio Grande do Sul evidenced that diversity and distribution of epiphytic orchids are strongly associated with e latitudinal decrease in temperature and rainfall, and to a major geographic barrier, namely the end of the Brazilian coastal mountainous system (about 30º south), originally covered with the dense and moist tropical-like Atlantic Rainforest.


Cribb, Phillip
The Herbarium
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Surrey TW 9 3 AE, U.K.

Cypridedium is a genus of some 45 species which ranges throughout north temperate regions of both the Old and New Worlds. At the northermmost limit of its range, two species are found in the Kamchatka Peninsula in Siberia, while three species are found in Alaska. In the south, four species reach the Himalayas while, in the Americas, C. irapeanum is found as far south as Honduras. A number of the species and their habitats will be discussed here.

The closely related genera of slipper orchids Paphiopedilum and Phragmipedium, both popular in cultivation, are well known in comparison with Cypripedium. Herbarium studies and field work in China, Mexico, the United States and Europe by the author has led to an improvement in our knowledge of the classification, distribution and phylogeny of the genus Complementary work on the molecula systematics of Cypripedium by my colleague, Tony Cox, at Kew has also greatly increased our understanding of relationships in the genus.

Cypripedium species have always been popular in cultivation but have not been very easy to obtain except from the wild. Fortunately, improvements in in vitro cultivation from seed has meant that a number of species are now more widely available. Furthermore, cultural knowledge has increased dramatically over the past five years and growers now stand a better chance of success with cypripediums than ever before. Another interesting development has been the raising in Germany and the United States of a number of interspecific hybrids. These grow to flowering size more quickly than the parental species and appear to be more vigorous as well. If this thend continues I anticipate that cypripediums will rapidly gain an increasing following amongst orchid frowers.


Garcia-Cruz, Carlos J. & Eric Hágsater
Herbario de la Asociación Mexicana de Orquideologia, A.C.
Aparato Postal 53-123, 11320 México D.F., MÉXICO

En el presente estudio se realizó una revisión taxonómica de las especies del grupo Epidendrum anisatum, el cual está formado por 19 especies de las cuales 4 fueron propuestas como nuevas durante el desarrollo del presente trabajo. El grupo se endémico para México, distribuyéndose principalmente a lo largo de la vertiente pacifica del pais y el e je volcánico transversal, en los bosques de pino y de pino encino a una altitud que va de 1500-300 m s.n.m. Este grupo se reconoce por presentar plantar con un hábito cespitoso, con las hojas angostas, lanceoladas, distribuidas principalmente en la mitad apical del tallo y por tener inflorescencias racemosas, las cuales florecen en anos sucesivos a partir de los nudos del pedúnculo de la inflorescencia principal, dando la apariencia de ser pluriracemosas cuando la planta ha florecido durante varios anos. En el tratamiento taxonómico se incluye una clave para la determinación de los taxa, descripciones morfolóficas, la sinonímia correspondente e información sobre la ecologia y los tipos de vegetación para cada una de las especies del grupo en estudio. Por otro lado, también se describe tanto la anatomia foliar como la morfologia del polinario en las entidades del grupo E. anisatum. Además, con los datos obtenidos en los diferentes estudios se realizó un análisis fenético (análisis de conglomerados y análisis de coordenadas principales), para identificar la simitud morfológica entre los diferentes taxa del grupo. Finalmente se describen los patrones de distribución que se presentan en el grupo E. anisatum, así como sus posibles tendencias evolutivas.


Sánchez Saldaña, Luis M. & Eric Hágsater
Herbário de la Asociación Mexicana de Orquideologia A.C. (AMO),
Aparato Postal 53-123, 11320 México D.F., MÉXICO

Tradicionalmente se había considerado a Epidendrum difforme Jacq. como una especie muy variable y ampliamente distribuida en el neotrópico, desde México y Floriada hasta Brasil y Bolivia, incluyendo las Antillas, ocupando una diversidad de hábitats que abarca múltiples tipos de bosques tropicales de tierras bajas y de montaña, en un intervalo altitudinal que va del nivel del mar hasta cerca de 2700m. Sin embargo, estudios recientes sugieren que se trata de la morfologia floral y vegetativa, su distribución geográfica y sus preferencias ecológicas.

El complejo de Epidendrum difforme Jacq., parece constituir un grupo natural dentro del gênero Epidendrum L., y se distingue de otros grupos del género por las plantas con hojas suculentas, coninflorescencia terminal, sésil o cortamente penduculada, subumbelada, sin espata que cubra el pedúnculo, las flores generalmente carnosas, verdes o en ocasiones blancas.

En el estudio se realizóel examen detallado de numerosos ejemplares vivos y herborizados del complejo E. difforme, de los cueles se resgistraron diversas características vegetativas y florales, algunas han sido útiles para separar las especies (sección transversal del tallo, forma y tamaño del labelo, columna arqueada o recta, prominencias apicales de la columna, tamaño del clinandrio con respecto a la columna, floración simultánea o sucesiva). También se registró la información sobre la procedencia (localidad), el hábitat (altitud, tipo de vegetación) y la fenologia (floración, fructificación).

La informacion anterior permitió el reconocimiento de 55 especies, en las cuales las características diagnósticas son constantes y presentam patrones de distribución definidos. Uno de los patrones detectados está representado por aquellas especies con una distribución restringida, como ocurre con algunas especies de la Cordillera Central de Costa Rica, en donde se presenta un gradiente altitudinal en el cual las especies están separadas debido a sus preferencias ecológicas. Otro patrón involucra a aquellas especies con una amplia distribución geográfica, algunas ocupando diferentes tipos de habitats y con poco variación intraespecifica.

Un tercer patrón está representado por especies que ocupan un área relativamente amplia y continua y con una considerable variación intraespecífica. Morfologicamente y de acuerdo a la forma y el tamaño del labelo se tienen evidencias de que las formas de labelo entero se encuentran distribuidas hasta centroamérica, las formas de labelo trilobado con lóbulo medio subcuadrado y en el cual se incluye a E. difforme presentan un patrón de distribución en Centroamérica y las Antillas, por último las especies con labelo grande tienen su distribución generalmente en Suramérica.


Pridgeon, Alec M., and Mark W. Chase
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, U.K.

Subtribe Catasetinae Schlechter comprises five genera: Catasetum, Cycnoches, Clowesia, Dressleria, and Mormodes. According to Romero, the morphological synapomorphies characterizing the subtribe include a stripe streched over the rostellum at anthesis (propelling the pollinarium onto the euglossine be pollinator) and flowers that are either protandrous or unisexual. We have produced nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences for 20 ingroup species (including both subgener of Catasetum) and 10 outgroup species in subtribe Cyrtopodiinae. Sequences were subjected to parsimony analysis and the results compared both with relationships derived from morphological data sets and preliminary chloroplast DNA sequences. Our results demonstrate that all five genera of Catasetinae are monophyletic and fall into two clades. In one clade Clowesia is sister to Catasetum. Subgenus Pseudocatasetum as currently defined is not monophyletic. In the second clade Cycnoches is sister to Mormodes and Dressleria sister to them both. These results as well as those from chloroplast DNA studies suggest that bisexuality with protandry has arisen twice in the evolution of the subtribe.


Werkhoven, Marga C. M.
Senior Curador, National Herbarium of Suriname
University of Suriname, P.O. Box 9212, Paramaribo, SURINAME

The population and the four different landscapes of Suriname, the hilly/mountainous ares, the Cover landscape, the Old Coastal Plain, and the Young Coastal plain are discussed and illustrated with slides, including the geomorphology, ecosystems and orchid diversity. Until present, for Suriname 109 orchid genera have been recorded with 380-395 species. The diversity in orchid species changes between 350m and 500m above sea-level.

Since the implementation of the Nature Conservation Law of 1954, thirteen nature reserves, one nature park and one multiple-use management area have been established. These protected areas cover more than 800,000ha, or 4.8% of the country.

Attempts have also been made to integrate nature conservation into regional development plans. The tradicional rights and interests of the inhabitants of the interior have also been taken into account. Although much research still has to be done, one may assume that most of the typical ecosystems of the Guianan region which occur in Suriname, are preserved in large nature reserves.

Suriname became a member of CITES on 15 February 1981, and party to the Convention on Biological Diversity in April 1996. The Forest Management ct (1992) covers the export of all plant species which occur in the wild. At present wild orchids may be exported only if the species are mentioned on a special list and according preliminary quota per exporter per shipment or per family per journey.

In 1993, Suriname took the desperate step (due to economic decline) of inviting Asian investors to explore possibilities for establishing multi-million hectare concessions. Until now, only 1 concession of 1,500,000 ha has been granted. The annual deforestation rate is, at the moment, less than 0.1 percent. Suriname has one of the world highest proportions of forest cover. Lets hope that the 'National Strategy on the Sustainable Use and Conservation of the Biological Diversity", one of the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity, will save our natural ecosystems and the diversity of orchids.


Paiva Castro, Vitorino
São Paulo, SP, BRASIL

O presente estudo tem por objetivo discutir as propostas de subdivisão do Gênero e sua nomenclatura, e mesmo que a discussão dos nomes atuais das espécie e nova denominação proposta. Uma chave de identificação é apresentada como orientação para o reconhecimento das espécies. É apresentada a área de distribuição geográfica e suas características climáticas, e os métodos de cultivo das espécies do gênero Bifrenaria.


Stocker, G.C.
Stocker's Orchids
PO Box 188, Malanda, Qld 4885, AUSTRALIA

The characterístics of orchid habitats in Papua New Guinea are described as an aid to the cultivation of the many orchid species indigenous to this Island.

Habitat temperatures appear to be of primary importante. Unfortunately they can vary significantly from those obtained by standard meteorogical methods. nevertheless, there is a useful relationship between habitat temperature and elevation. The lack of seasonal variation is also noteworthy.

Rainfall patterns in the lowlands may be quite variable but favourable to epyphyte development over most of the country. At higher elevations rain and mists provide sufficient moisture for a multitude of small to medium sized epiphytes.

Little information is a available about light conditions. While cloudiness appear to be a factor limiting the amount available for plant growth in some localities, long periods of continuous cover only occur in regions where the monsoonal influence is strong.

It is concluded that cultivators of PNG orchid species should be particularly mindful of the altitudinal distribution of the species being grown and use this information as guide to assessing the optimal temperature regime for their greenhouse.


Gonzáles Valera, N., Gonzáles Pérez M.A., Marcano M. & Vivas M.
Faculdad de Ciencias. Departamento de Biologia. Universidad de los Andes
Núcleo la Hachicera Mérida-Mérida, e-mail" ngonzal@ciens.ula.ve. VENEZUELA

Izoenzyme electrophoresis on agarose gell was used the examine variation at O gene loci in some venezuelan orchids belonging to the genera Phragmipedium, Oncidium, Odontoglossum, Epidendrum, Catasetum, Pleurothallis, Restrepia and others. Each species can be identified by the bands generated in the assay. They differ from the electrophoretic mobilities in almost three loci. Thus, species identification is easy by this analysis and probably, hybrids can be detected in this way. Electrophoretic data are concordant with the view that all these species are related by our results differ from a classification based on morphological characters.


Kerbauy, Gilberto

As raízes de um modo geral podem ser consideradas órgãos com grau de complexidade estrutural relativamente baixo, não formando nós, entre-nós, gemas laterais, folhas, flores, etc. Suas funções resumem-se mormente à fixação e absorção de água e nutrientes. Poucas são as espécies vegetais com raízes capazes de formar gemas diretamente nos ápices meristemáticos. Estudos realizados neste laboratório têm evidenciado que a formação de protocormóides ("protocorm-like bodies") em ápices isolados de raízes de plantas orquidáceas pode ocorrer sob duas rotas morfogenéticas distintas. Em Oncidium e Cattleya (Kerbauy 1964a, 1993), plantas consideradas recalcitrantes, a generação ocorre após cerca de 9 a 12 meses de incubação. Nestas, os explantes radiculares originam inicialmente uma estrutura complexa, o calóide, sobre os quais se formam então os protocormóides. A regeneração é por isto do tipo indireto, sendo a presença de citocininas e auxinas no meio de cultura, condição "sine que non" à formação de ambas estruturas. Por outro lado, os ápices radiculares isolados de Catasettum e gêneros afins, são capazes de se converter diretamente em protocormóides em menos de uma semana (Kerbauy, 1984b), sendo este processo acelerado por citocininas e etileno e retardado por auxinas (Colli & Kerbauy, 1993). A luz inibe e o escuro estimula este processo. Fontes de nitrogênio orgânico e níveis elevados de açúcares inibem prolongadamente a formação dos protocormóides. Durante o processo de conversão as divisões celulares do ápice radicular não sõ interrompidas em nenhum momento (conversão direta). Através das abordagens em andamento neste laboratório sobre a definição dos níveis endógenos de vários fitormônios, a atividade gênica específica, o metabolismo do nitrogênio e de carboidratos, etc, esperamos adquirir, num futuro próximo, uma melhor compreensão sobre este evento incomum e dramático de diferenciação celular em plantas.


La Croix, Isobyl F.1 e Arno Brune2
19 Port Henderson, Gairloch, Ross-shire IV21 2AS, U.K.
2Cassila de Correo 24, 3342 Virasoro, Ctes, ARGENTINA

Several orchids from this picturesque tiny island country are unknown, as never before a systematic effort has been made to collect and classificy orchid species alone. Endemism on the two island is fairly high as plants and animals in general are concerned, probably due to the great variation in environmental conditions. It is expected that this degree of endemism applies to orchids as well.

From February 1994 to the end of March 1996 collections were made i all parts of the country which could be reached by the second author, who did this in his spare time. In all over 120 plants werc collected and classified by the first autohor, whenever flowering ocured. Some plants, due to phenotypic similarity and because they occurred at the same site, received the same number. However, when flowering, some of those proved to be different species, so that the number of species thought tooccur inthat country has been increasing. Two new species have been found, but might well increase further. One of these has been described.


Kleber Garcia de Lacerda, Jr.
Belo Horizonte, MG, BRASIL

The profusion of synonyms on the genus Catasetum L.C. Rich. is known anyone that ventures to study it; it is guessed there is an average of 3,5 synonyms for each valid species. Many are the causes, besides obviously the publications made without a through understanding of the genus, and noteworthy are:

1 - Flower polymorphism
2 - Intraspecific variability
3 - Graduality of interspecific morphology
4 - Natural hybridization
5 - Artificial hybridization
6 - Wrong or not mentioned geographic origin
7 - Incomplete or inexact descriptions
8 - Similarity of descriptions
9 - Poor drawings
10 - Inexistant or not checked types
11 - Study based only on dired specimens
12 - Similar but not intgrated studies
13 - Absence of phenological data
14 - Absence of pollination studies
Examples of each case are shown

These reasons, some of them exacerbated in recent years, are making a revision of the genus very difficult by the specialists, which have to get to an agreeement to minimize them.