And Harold Koopowitz2
1Orchid Zone Nursery, Salinas, California, CA 93907, USA
2Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine, CA92717, USA

In a preliminary investigation, three natural field populations of Phaphiopedilum sanderiamum (Rchb.F.) Stein were analyzed. Populations ranged in size from 17 to 28 mature plants with additional numbers of seedlings Although populations of adult plants were small, one population did contain over 100 seedlings. Very few plants in any population had multiple growths, and the average number of growths per mature plant for all three sites was 1.16. The percentage of the mature plants in the population flowering, ranged from 14 to 32%, and the probability of sucessful pollination producing a fruit for each flower averaged 32% with a range of 20 to 55.6%. more than one pod was seen on some inflorescences. Compared to Cypripedium species, reproductive success in Paphiopedilum seems to be higher but may not be comparable with that of P. rothschildianum. It is also greater than that usually reported for other tropical orchids that either use decveit or offer nectar rewards.




Koopowitz, H., T. Marchant and P. Leonard
Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Irvine CA 92697, USA

Aerangis verdickii is a Central African epiphytic orchid that is pollinated by a hawkmoth. The plant produces inflorescences bearing between 2 and 13 flowers, each of which has a long cylindrical nectary or spur derived from the base of the labellum. The nectary has a mean lengh of 133.25mm with range of 121-146mm, n=35 from 8 plants. The mean volume of nectar per nectary in unpollinated flowers was 19.l and this occupied the basal 24.4mm of the nectary (range 10-35mm, n=10). The mean concentration of sugar in the nectar was 18.5% sucrose equivalents. nectar also appears to contain the amino acid asparagine. The structure of the spur is a hollow cylinder with two vascular traces that run down to its distal tip. Additional vascular bundles enter the spur at the proximal end and run about two-thirds of the lengh of the organ. Unlike the case in many other nectaries, each vascular bundle contains both phloem and xylem cells. In addition, the nectary wall does contain elongated cavities of unknown function. This nectary appears to be unusual in that any remaining nectar is reabsorbed following pollination. The relationship of nectar and the reproductive success of the plant will be discussed.


Fagnani, Maria da Penha K e Siqueira, Carlos Ivan da S.

The Massambaba "restinga" or sandy coastal plain is located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, comprising the stripe fo land between the Araruama lagoon and the Atlantic ocean. It is one of the more representative orchid habitats of our state, being rich not only in orchids but in a variety of other plants, which are valuable for its ornamental and medicinal potencial. Due to its vicinity to the city of Rio de Janeiro the massambaba "restinga" habitat is under constant pressure for destruction due to economic interests. The floristic survey of Orchidaceae in the area revealed 13 genera and 16 species, plus a natural hybrid. Informations are given on local conditions of growth and flowering times. The authors emphasize the importance of recent data for appraisal of existing species and new occurences.


Hall, Robert M.
Stellenkloof Orchids

Historically, greenhouse plants have always lived in an artificial environment because of the need to protect them from the natural elements, particularly from extremes of temperature. Our ability to control this environment is therefore crucial to the health of the plants; this control constitutes the maintenance of air flow, temperature, humidity and light at economic levels for optimum growth, but the degree of humidity has probably been somewhat neglected, largely because of the fact that it is not very well understood.

Orchids absorb moisture from the air as well as from the surfaces to which they are attached. Epiphytic orchids are dependent upon rainfall and humidity for water. A relative humidity of 60 a 70 per cent is considered ideal for orchid growing. (1)

As a grower, particularly in an area which experiences a long, hot and dry summer season, I have always been frustrated by the inability to control the humidity of the greenhouse. I have tried various misting devices, but find these tend to produce water in large droplets (Over 50 microns in size), which fall onto the orchid plants causing fungal rot in the crown and buds. Water can also lead to rot and disfigurement of the blooms. These devices were also inadequate to cover a large, or even a reasonably-sized greenhouse, in that they only covered the area immediately surrounding them.


Sheehan, Thomas J.
Departament of Envionmental Horticulture, IFAS, University of Florida, USA

Most Orchid Growers take orchid plant names for granted and never look into the background of how or why the plant got its name. There are strict rulles foverning the nomenclature of plants. The naming of species found growing in the wild is governed by the international Code of Botanical Nomenclatura, while man made hybrid names must follow the international Code of Nonemclature for Cultivated Plants. Orchidists are fortunate that plant taxonomists nave coined generic and specific names that are descriptive of the plant (e.g. Phalaenpsis - Morth-like), identifies its native habit (e.g. iaponica - from Japan) o honors an individual (e.g. Cattleya - honoring Mr. Cattley). Hybrid names, according to code, must be 'fancy' and thus are seldom descriptive. Learning the derivation of orchid plant names can only make growers more appreciative of their plants.


Head, Cordelia
J & L Orchids, Easton, CT, USA

The andes of South America are home to some of the most diverse and interesting orchids of the New World. The influence of the Amazon Basin to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west along with the main central valleys in the north create numerous micro-climates at all the various elevations. Exploring and understanding these different habitats, from the high cloud forest to the coastal plains, and discussing the various different genera and species found there can only enhance our knowledge of the cultural needs that are necessary to the correct condifions of good orchid cultivation. By viewing and discussing a few select habitats in Colombia, Ecuador and Peru it is hoped that we will have a better appreciation of the different influences these plants experience in the wild whih can then be applied to those plants cultivated in captivity.


Winn, Lucinda
J & L Orchids, Easton, CT, USA

The popularity of growing miniature orchids is steadily escalating as evidenced by the number of plants seen on show tables and in exhibits around the globe. Plants once snubbed by orchid growers and referred to as 'botanicals' are winning major awards at judging centers, and show trophies in world wide competitions.

A miniature orchid is officially classified as a plant whose foliage is six inches or less, excluding inflorescence. Compact, floriferous plants are always desirable but a focus on the truly small plant - those under three inches - opens a whole new field of exploration and satisfaction to the orchid hobbyist.

Members of the micro-miniatures are found in a great number of sub-tribes, making these Lilliputian orchids suitable to a wide range of growing conditions. The diversity of shape and texture in the diminutive plants, as well as the diversity of their flowers in size, color and configurationholds a fascination for orchid fanciers that is intesely rewarding.


Oliveira, Sérgio Augusto Alves de
Alameda Atlântica n. 22 - Jardim Roseiral, 15070-500 - São José do Rio Preto, SP BRASIL

Desde o estabelecimento do gênero Cattleya em 1821-1824 por John Lindley baseado em plantas de Cattleya labiata, muitas outras espécies foram anexadas ou excluídas nesses mais de 170 anos.

É impossível precisarmos o número exato de plantas que foram enviadas à Europa no século passado, mas documentos antigos revelam que muitos navios carregados com orquídeas chegaram aos portos ingleses, franceses e de vários outros países. Após serem descarregadas, as plantas foram enviadas ás estufas dos grandes orquidários comerciais, onde a maioria fenecia antes de florescer devido aos métodos impróprios de cultivos adotados na época .

Como poucas plantas sobreviviam, quando floresciam causavam sensação ao serem expostas, atraindo verdadeiras multidões e alcançando valores altíssimos, muitas recebiam premiações das sociedades de horticultura além de serem publicadas em livros.

A grande maioria das plantas que no século passado eram excepcionais, cobiçadíssimas, hoje estão superadas quando adotamos os critérios de julgamento e perfeição atualmente usados (pétalas e sépalas largas, dispostas simetricamente entre si, labelo bem formado, cores firmes e bem distribuídas, etc). As flores que hoje encontramos preservadas em pranchas de livros ou em coleção particulares geralmente são constituídas por plantas típicas com pétalas e sépalas estreitas, mal posicionadas, labelos finos e malformados com cores esvaídas e distribuídas irregularmente.

Com o passar dos anos, variedades foram sendo encontradas e descritas, algumas se tornaram bastante comuns, outras ainda são bastante raras. Mas, devemos ter em mente que nem sempre o perfeito e belo é raro vice-versa.

Mesmo com o aparecimento de inúmeros clones e variedades selecionadas em quase todas as espécies, algumas continuam não tendo clones que possam ser considerados perfeitos, assim como certas variedades continuam a ser raríssimas como a variedade flâmela em Cattleya rex, onde até hoje apenas uma planta foi encontrada, sendo que essa absolutamente não apresenta uma forma perfeita!

Com o advento da combinação genética, o uso de produtos farmacológicos, a cultura assimbiótica, as possibilidades de obtenção de plantas selecionadíssimas ou que ainda hoje são raras são enormes, o que fará com que nossos critérios de perfeição sejam permanentemente mutáveis.


Fighetti, Carlos F.
Closter, New Jersey, USA

The large increase in the registration of novelty Phalaenopsis in recent years is a good indication of the popularity of these plantas with the hobbyist grower all over the world. Phalaenopsis are easy to grow and to flower, producing in many cases large inflorescences carrying a multitude of long lasting flowers in a variety of patterns and colors. As novice growers gain confidence in successfully reblooming their plants, theis interest extend from the white and pink flowers to the brightly colored flowers sometimes also referred as novelties. These include the reds, yellows and the combination of both giving the desert tones or art shades. Here we will focus on the combination of the red and yellow Phalaenopsis.

These colors (desert tones or art shades, or peach, orange, copper, rusty red, or bronze), result from the combination of anthocyanin (red or red/lavender) pigments with the carotenoids (green/yellow) pigments. The quality, placement and blending of these pigments is what give us the perception or the illusion of the desert tone color. When breeding Phalaenopsis for the art shade colors, the hybridizer does not have control over the relative distribution of red and yellow pigmentation, and, as a result, a broad spectrum of color can be found in the progeny, with the drawback of econtinuous changing of the colors as either or both pigments fade, thyus shifting the balance of color as the flower ages.

A description of the species that are most influential in this type of breeding will be discussed. They will include Phal. amboinensis, fasciata and venosa on the yellow side, and lueddemanniana and violacea on the red.

The most recent breeding programs of several well known American hybridizers will be presented. These will include the breeding programs of H.P. Norton at Orchidview Orchids, and of the late Herb Hager and continued by Terry Root and Mark Pendelton at The Orchid Zone.


Zappi, Luciano
Venda Nova, ES, BRASIL

Com esta palestra, pretendemos tecer algumas considerações à respeito do Oncidium zappii e do Onc. colnagoi, à luz de novos conceitos estabelecidos com o manejo destes Oncidium no habitat durante 19 anos.

Ambos descritos em 1976 pelo saudoso amigo Guido Pabst, são a mais recente aquisição da Sessão Crispa. Em virtude de sua restrita difusão e difícil autopolinização, mesmo no habitat, foram até hoje pouco estudados sendo a única literatura a plublicação na Bradea e alguns artigos do Dr. Carlos Eduardo de Britto Pereira. Ambos Oncidium são endêmicos e tem o mesmo habitat, tendo sido descrito o Onc. zappii como espécie pura e o Onc. colnagoi sendo o Hibr. natural deste com o Onc. Forbesii. Acreditamos que o Pabst tenha chegado a esta conclusão em virtude de só ter conhecido as únicas duas plantas que enviamos a ele para o Holotypus e pelo grande polimorfismo que a espécie apresenta. Provavelmente uma espécie em evolução como veremos a seguir. Cumpre salientar que ambos Oncidium são muito bonitos e que o Onc. zappi tem características patognomônicas que identificam a espécie por ser "sui generis"; o escudo vermelho-marrom aveludado, uma coleira dourada ou resquícios desta separando o escudo da fauce e a presença de cromoplastos reinfringentes nas flores que lhes conferem um aspecto de "poeira brilhante faiscando, como na Sophronitis rosea".

Gostaria ainda de salientar um aspecto interessante, que quase me induziu a um erro em que pôde ser evitado a tempo pelo estudo populacional. Trata-se do Onc. zappii var. concolor. De uma feita, achei 4 ou 5 plantas com flores concolores em um pequeno grupo e isto induziu-me ao erro. Supus que o Onc. zappii, seria na realidade todo marrom-cobre com o calo vermelho-marrom aveludado, sem a coleira dourada sendo esta apanágio do Onc. colnagoi, passada a este híbrido pelo seu outro progenitor, o Onc. gardneri var. caloglossum e não o Onc. forbesii como supôs o Pabst. Assim toda flor que tivesse amarelo no lavelo, seria Onc. colnagoi. Isto faria total e absoluto sentido, se, uma grande maioria, ou a quase totalidade dos Onc. zappii, fossem concolor. Felizmente o estudo populacional demonstrou que temos a var. concolor em uma proporção de 4:100- (4%) trazendo luz ao problema e estabelecendo o conceito de que a coleira dourada, ou os resquícios desta, é apanágio do Onc. zappii. Note-se contudo, que a inconstância desta coleira íntegra, às vezes só resuícios e às vezes a inexistência desta, associada ao grande polimorfismo das flores como veremos a seguir, nos permite afirmar que é uma espécie em evolução.


Hasegawa, Norito
Paphanatics Unltd.;
3319 West Lincoln Ave., #103; Anaheim, CA 92801, USA

The extraordinary Paphiopedilum sanderianum was originally described as Cypripedium sanderianum by Reichenbach in 1886. Within seven years of its description, the first hubrd P. sanderianum hybrid was registered as P. Sanderiano-Superbiens by N.C. Cookson. By 1907, twelve hybrids had been registered. However no additional hybrids were registered until 1991, over eightt years later, due to the demise of the species in collections shortly after the turn of the century. In the early 1980s the species was rediscovered and brought into collections, leading hybridizers to frantically create many more new hybrids.

In 1991, five hybrids of P. sanderianum were registered by the Royal Horticultural Society. By 1995, seventeen more hybrids had been registered, for a total of twenty-two since 1991. To the author's knowledge, only two of the original twelve hybrids have been recreated and flowered; P. Ultor and P. Prince Edward of York.

Of the newly registered hybrids, eleven have been primary hybrids bred with other species (3 with brachypetalums, 4 with cochlopetalums, 1 with a species from section Barbata, 3 witch other multifloral spcies). Eight P. sanderianum hybrids are registered using primary hybrid parents, of which six are multiflorals or nearmultiflorals. Three crosses result from using hybrids beyond the primaries; of these three, two are multiflorais or near-multiflorals.


Michel, Erich E.
Operations Manager, Hoosier Orchid Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA

This discussion of species seed propagation will be in four parts. Part one will discuss pollination, and will cover natural pollination mechanisms relating to fruit production, selection of parents in capativity, self pollination barriers, and multiple fruit production. Part two will discuss harvest of seed, and the effect of environmental conditions on fruit maturation and viability. part theree will discuss flasking and aseptic technique, and will cover asmbiotic green capsule and dry seed techniques, seed techniques, seed morphology and staining procedures, media formulations, germination processes, and deflasking techniques. Part four will discuss pollen and seed storage, and the role of seed propagation in species conservation.